Kangaroo II IX-121 - History

Kangaroo II IX-121 - History

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(IX-121: dp. 3,665; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr. 28'4"; s. 11 k.; cpl. 79; a. 1 5", 1 3"; cl. Armadillo: T. Z-ETI-S-C3)

Kangaroo (IX-121) was laid down as Paul Tulane under Maritime Commission contract by Delta Shipbuilding Co., New Orleans, La., 28 September 1943; renamed Kangaroo 27 October 1943; launched 6 November 1943 -1 sponsored by Mrs. Rufus C. Harris; acquired by the Navy on bareboat basis 17 December; and commissioned 20 December, Lt. G. D. Lawson in command.

Following shadedown in the Gulf of Mexico, Kangaroo departed Guantanamo Bay 24 January 1944, transited the Panama Canal the 28th, and steamed to Noumea, New Caledonia, arriving 1 March. Assigned to the Service Force Pacific as a replacement for Stag (IX-128), she loaded fuel and supplies and departed for Guadalcanal 21 March. Upon arrival 26 March, she commenced fueling operations; and for the next 5 months she plied the waters of the Solomons, replenishing ships with fuel needed to steam into battle.

Departing Tulagi 10 September, she sailed to the Tonga Islands, received a cargo of fuel oil, and delivered her cargo at Noumea 5 October. For 7 months she served as a shuttle and station tanker, transporting bunker oil from the Fiji and Tonga Islands to bases in the New Hebrides and New Caledonia. After a voyage to New Zealand for repairs, she departed Auckland 6 June to load fuel oil at American Samoa. Subsequently, she conducted fueling operations in the Solomons, Eniwetok, and the Western Carolines before arriving Buckner Bay, Okinawa, 14 August to resume duty as a station tanker.

While in the Pacific Kangaroo steamed over 20,000 miles and hauled more than 38,000,000 gallons of fuel oil and hundreds of drums of lubricating oil for fighting ships of the Navy. During her service she refueled more than 80 ships, including 10 carriers, 34 destroyers, 20 troop transports 12 cargo ships and numerous merchantmen-not to mention storage barges, oilers, and tank arms.

Kangaroo departed Okinawa 2 February 1946, for the United States. Transiting the Panama Canal 9 March, she put into Norfolk 30 April after a 6-week anchorage at Lynnhaven Roads and Hampton Roads, Va., Kangaroo decommissioned 13 May, and the following day she was turned over to the Maritime Commission for disposal.

Germany's World War I Debt Was So Crushing It Took 92 Years to Pay Off

At the end of World War I, Germans could hardly recognize their country. Up to 3 million Germans, including 15 percent of its men, had been killed. Germany had been forced to become a republic instead of a monarchy, and its citizens were humiliated by their nation’s bitter loss.

Even more humiliating were the terms of Germany’s surrender. World War I’s victors blamed Germany for beginning the war, committing horrific atrocities and upending European peace with secretive treaties. But most embarrassing of all was the punitive peace treaty Germany had been forced to sign.

The Treaty of Versailles didn’t just blame Germany for the war—it demanded financial restitution for the whole thing, to the tune of 132 billion gold marks, or about $269 billion today.

How𠅊nd when𠅌ould Germany possibly pay its debt?

Germans take war machines apart outside Berlin under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles Germany. This tank is in fact a British tank, captured and put into service by the Germans during World War I.

Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Nobody could have dreamed that it would take 92 years. That’s how long Germany took to repay World War I reparations, thanks to a financial collapse, another world war and an ongoing debate about how, and even whether, Germany should pay up on its debts.

Allied victors took a punitive approach to Germany at the end of World War I. Intense negotiation resulted in the Treaty of Versailles’ “war guilt clause,” which identified Germany as the sole responsible party for the war and forced it to pay reparations.

Germany had suspended the gold standard and financed the war by borrowing. Reparations further strained the economic system, and the Weimar Republic printed money as the mark’s value tumbled. Hyperinflation soon rocked Germany. By November 1923, 42 billion marks were worth the equivalent of one American cent.

During a period of hyperinflation in 1920s Germany, 100,000 marks was the equivalent one U.S. dollar.

Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

Finally, the world mobilized in an attempt to ensure reparations would be paid. In 1924, the Dawes Plan reduced Germany’s war debt and forced it to adopt a new currency. Reparations continued to be paid through a strange round robin: The U.S. lent Germany money to pay reparations, and the countries that collected reparations payment used that money to pay off United States debts. The plan was heralded as a victory𠅌harles Dawes, a banker who later became vice president under Calvin Coolidge won a Nobel Prize for his role in the negotiations.

But the Weimar Republic still struggled to pay its debts, so another plan was hashed out in 1928.

The Young Plan involved a reduction of Germany’s war debt to just 121 billion gold marks. But the dawn of the Great Depression ensured its failure and Germany’s economy began disintegrating again. 

In an attempt to thwart disaster, President Herbert Hoover put a year-long moratorium on reparation payments in 1931. The next year, Allied delegates attempted to write off all Germany’s reparations debt at the Lausanne Conference, but the U.S. Congress refused to sign on to the resolution. Germany was still on the hook for its war debt.

Soon after, Adolf Hitler was elected. He canceled all payments in 1933. “Hitler was committed to not just not paying, but to overturning the whole treaty,” historian Felix Schulz told the BBC’s Olivia Lang. His refusal was seen as an act of patriotism and courage in a nation that saw the reparations as a form of humiliation. Germany made no payments during Hitler’s rule.

New inductees of the Wehrmacht taking oath on August 25, 1936. The growth of Hitler&aposs armies was in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.

But Germany wasn’t destined to win the war, and the Third Reich ended with Hitler’s suicide in April 1945 and Germany’s official surrender a few days later. By then, the country was in chaos. Millions of people had been displaced. Over 5.5 million German combatants, and up to 8.8 million German civilians, were dead. Most of Germany’s institutions had crumbled, and its populace was on the brink of starvation.

The Allies exacted reparations for World War II, too. They weren’t paid in actual money, but through industrial dismantling, the removal of intellectual property and forced labor for millions of German POWs. After the surrender, Germany was divided into four occupation zones, and in 1949 the country was split in two. Economic recovery, much less reparations payments, seemed unlikely.

By then, West Germany owed 30 billion Deutschmarks to 70 different countries, according to Deutsche Welle’s Andreas Becker, and was in desperate need of cash. But an unexpected ray of hope broke through when West Germany’s president, Konrad Adenauer, struck a deal with a variety of western nations in 1953. The London Debt Conference canceled half of Germany’s debt and extended payment deadlines. And because West Germany was required to pay only when it had a trade surplus, the agreement gave breathing room for economic expansion.

Soon, West Germany, bolstered by Marshall Plan aid and relieved of most of its reparations burden, was Europe’s fastest-growing economy. This �onomic miracle” helped stabilize the economy, and the new plan used the potential of reparations payments to encourage countries to trade with West Germany.

Still, it took decades for Germany to pay off the rest of its reparations debt. At the London Conference, West Germanyਊrgued it shouldn’t be responsible for all of the debt the old Germany had incurred during World War I, and the parties agreed that part of its back interest wouldn’t become due until Germany reunified. Once that happened, Germany slowly chipped away at the last bit of debt. It made its last debt payment on October 3, 2010—the 20th anniversary of German reunification. 

Kangaroo Squadron: American Courage in the Darkest Days of World War II

On December 6 th 1941, in the days of celestial navigation, there were flying boats in the sky over the Pacific Ocean, heading towards the Hawaiian island of Oahu. As the sun appeared above the horizon, the pilots of the approaching B-17 Bombers were ready for their island-time crew rest and relaxation on the beach. The air crews could not have imagined what was waiting for them: the Japanese destruction of Pearl Harbor and other U.S. bases on Oahu, the United States thrust into war, nor the impact they would have during the initial months of World War II.

In Kangaroo Squadron: American Courage in the Darkest Days of World War II, Bruce Gamble illuminates the lost story of the B-17 Flying Fortresses and the courageous men who flew them into harm’s way. Through the pages of this dark history, the author brings to life the B-17 Flying Fortress as its own character that played a pivotal role in paving the way for America’s entrance into the Pacific Theater.

Representing the biggest display of aerial strength to date, the Flying Fortress was designed as a long-range bomber with a massive wingspan, supercharged radial engines, retractable landing gear, and a streamlined fuselage that in essence locked the Boeing Company into its rightful place in aviation history. This aircraft also employed the firepower of .50 caliber machine guns and twin machine guns in the turret. For many pilots and crewmen, the Flying Fortress would become one of the most revered bombers that ever crossed the sky.

As the pages fly by, the readers will visualize the struggles that the brave crews of the Flying Fortress went through and the courage displayed as they led the way to United States success in the Pacific Theater of War during the opening months of battle. The crews that flew the airborne monstrosity frequently found themselves in aerial dogfights with the much smaller, agile Japanese Zero, putting to the test the durability of the aircraft and the determination of the men aboard.

With his well-researched and descriptive narrative, Gamble successfully recounts the nearly-forgotten stories of the innovators that selflessly flew the B-17 Flying Fortress into the face of danger during countless reconnaissance and long-range bomb missions, as well as rescuing General MacArthur from the Philippians. The members of the Kangaroo Squadron overcame insurmountable odds in the most formidable conditions. Their legacy and extraordinary heroism when the United States needed them most is a story that begs to be told.

Bruce Gamble. Kangaroo Squadron American Courage in the Darkest Days of World War II. New York: Da Capo Press, 2018. 415 pages, $28.

Reviewed by Chief Warrant Officer Darien Garland, who is as of this review serving aboard Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni, Japan

World War II » Regimental Rosters & Histories

History of the 2nd Battalion The Royal Berkshire Regiment. Tracing the men who fought in the Burma theatre of WWII.

The 339th Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment of the United States Army, raised for service in World War I, that served in the North Russia Intervention and World War II.

From its activation at Camp Van Dorn, Mississippi through the end of World War II, company rosters, activities, timeline, etc.

[The original link is broken. This link points to an archived copy]
Contains rolls for 35th Battalion, 3rd NZ Division in the Pacific, World War II.

Australians serving in WWII.

A brief History of the 472nd Engineer Maintenance Company. The company served 30 months in Guadal Canal S.I. and 21 months at Espirito Santos N.H. This site contains a list of those who served in this Company, along with pictures.

Information about the missions, the men and the planes of the U.S. Army Air Force 94th Bomb Group (Heavy) in World War II. Lists reunions, legacy and more.

Roster, reunion information of U.S. Army 931st Signal Battalion (Avn) (Sp), World War II China-Burma-India Theatre.

The History of Battery A, 137 Anti-Aircraft Artillery Gun Bn., including Battery Roster, with some Photos of the 608th Military Police Battalion, Leyte, Philippines 1945.

Devoted to the history of the Calgary Highlanders in World War Two.

Digitized copies of rolls, casualties, regimental histories: Civil War, Spanish American War, WWI, WWII.

The Avro Lancaster B1 on display in the Aeroplane Hall at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra, ACT, Australia.

History of the Home Guard.

This site remembers the contributions and sacrifices made by members of this Australian WW2 battalion. It served in the Middle East (Tobruk, El Alamein), New Guinea and Borneo from 1940 to 1946. The site contains a list of battalion members, and some information on many of them.

Dedicated to the IX Engineer Command and its constituent units. This Command built, repaired and defended airfields in the European theatre during World War II beginning with the Normandy invasion on D-Day. The site includes rosters, photos, memoirs and unit histories.

Memorial website to the crew of RAF Lancaster bomber ED627 (EM-N) of 207 Squadron who died when they were shot down over Germany on August 28, 1943.

Many thousands of men were trained in mountain warfare at Cedars during 1943 and 1944. The site gives the history of the centre, the names of the instructors and some of the units that trained there together with the names of a few trainees.

USS Kangaroo (IX-121)

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

The second USS Kangaroo (IX-121), an Armadillo-class tanker designated an unclassified miscellaneous vessel, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the kangaroo, a family of herbivorous, leaping, marsupial mammals of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Her keel was laid down as Paul Tulane under Maritime Commission contract (T. Z-ET1-S-C3) by Delta Shipbuilding Company, New Orleans, Louisiana, on 28 September 1943. She was renamed Kangaroo 27 October 1943, launched on 6 November 1943 sponsored by Mrs. Rufus C. Harris, acquired by the Navy on bareboat basis 17 December, and commissioned on 20 December with Lieutenant G. D. Lawson in command.

Following shakedown in the Gulf of Mexico, Kangaroo departed Guantanamo Bay Naval Base on 24 January 1944, transited the Panama Canal on 28 January, and steamed to Noumea, New Caledonia, arriving 1 March. Assigned to the Service Force Pacific as a replacement for Stag (IX-128), she loaded fuel and supplies and departed for Guadalcanal on 21 March. Upon arrival 26 March, she commenced fueling operations, and for the next five months she replenishing ships in waters of the Solomon Islands.

Departing Tulagi on 10 September, she sailed to the Tonga Islands, received a cargo of fuel oil, and delivered her cargo at Noumea on 5 October. For seven months she served as a shuttle and station tanker, transporting bunker oil from the Fiji Islands and Tonga Islands to bases in the New Hebrides and New Caledonia. After a voyage to New Zealand for repairs, she departed Auckland on 6 June to load fuel oil at American Samoa. Subsequently, she conducted fueling operations in the Solomon Islands, Eniwetok, and the Western Caroline Islands before arriving Buckner Bay, Okinawa, on 14 August to resume duty as a station tanker.

While in the Pacific Kangaroo steamed over 20,000 miles (32,000 kilometers) and hauled more than 38,000,000 gallons (900,000 barrels, 144,000 cubic meters) of fuel oil and hundreds of drums of lubricating oil for fighting ships of the Navy. During her service she refueled more than 80 ships, including ten aircraft carriers, 34 destroyers, 20 troop transports, 12 cargo ships, and numerous merchantmen — not to mention storage barges, oilers, and tank farms.

Kangaroo departed Okinawa on 2 February 1946, for the United States. Transiting the Panama Canal on 9 March, she put into Norfolk, Virginia, on 30 April after a six-week anchorage at Lynnhaven Roads and Hampton Roads. Kangaroo decommissioned on 13 May, and the following day she was turned over to the Maritime Commission for disposal.

Don Knotts &mdash Marine Drill Instructor?

Claim: Actor Don Knotts once served as a drill instructor for the U.S. Marine Corps.

Example: [Collected on the Internet, 2003]

Origins: Positing improbable military backgrounds for popular entertainment figures is a common urban legend motif these days. Such tales don’t merely put stars in uniform as ordinary questionable claims establish the unlikeliest of entertainers as combat-tested veterans who have displayed high levels of skill, courage, and toughness. Thus we have legends positioning pop singer as a Army sniper,

gentle children’s host Fred Rogers as a tattooed marksman with a plethora of confirmed kills, and (better known to generations of TV-watching youngsters as Captain Kangaroo) as a hero of the World battle for Iwo Jima. (Of the three, only Keeshan actually served in the military, and he saw no combat action.)

Another legend of this ilk casts Don Knotts, best known as the bumbling deputy sheriff Barney Fife on The Andy Griffith Show and the pop-eyed, leisure-suited

landlord Ralph Furley on Three’s Company, as not just the unlikeliest serviceman since Gomer Pyle, but as the toughest and most fearsome of all military figures: a Corps drill instructor.

The only connection between legend and real life in this case is that Don Knotts did serve in the military. Born the youngest of four brothers in Morgantown, West Virginia, in 1924, young Don Knotts embarked on an entertainment career by performing as a ventriloquist at local venues after

high school he tried a brief stint in New York City and took a stab at attending West Virginia University before being drafted by the Army in Although the U.S. was

in the midst of fighting World at the time, Don Knotts saw no combat (and was certainly not a drill sergeant) — he was tapped for a special services unit and spent his hitch touring the Pacific Islands to entertain troops as a comedian in a G.I. variety show. After the war he ditched ventriloquism in favor of comedy, landed small spots in radio and on Broadway, and worked his way up the entertainment ladder to more prominent comedic roles in television and movies. (His portrayal of

Barney Fife eventually won him five consecutive Emmy awards for Best Supporting Actor in a television series.) Don Knotts also had one other military connection of the cinematic variety: he played the character of Corporal Brown in stage and film versions of No Time for Sergeants.

Why so many rumors about entertainers as military figures? The prevalence of this legend type can probably be attributed to the appeal of imagining popular stars as the polar opposites of their on-stage personas: Just as we’re intrigued by the notion that macabre rocker once portrayed the geeky Paul Pfeiffer character on TV’s The Wonder Years, so we’re fascinated with the notion that a slight, skinny man best known for playing a series of fumbling, high-strung, nervous characters was once one of “most feared drill instructors.” Legends like these confirm the belief that we never know what improbable paths life might lead us down and that appearances can be deceiving.

Tolmer's Reminiscences

Mr. Alexander Tolmer's long-promised story of his life, here and in the old world,has at fast made its appearance in two handsomely-bound volumes, full of interesting accounts of the author's experiences from his boyhood up to the present time.

An autobiography is commonly a somewhat hazardous experiment, as the writer may fall into the error of exaggerating the importance of his own achievements, and taking it for granted that to the public the scenes through which he has passed will be as interesting as they were to himself. The questions anyone undertaking to launch such a work upon the reading world should first endeavor to have satisfactorily answered are whether the incidents of his life are of an exceptionally sensational and interesting character, or whether they will deservedly attract special attention on account of their connection with public events, or because they are inter woven with historical associations. In Mr. Tolmer's case these questions could all undoubtedly be answered in the affirmative, before he resolved upon offering to the public his " Reminiscences of an Adventurous and Chequered Career at Home and at the Antipodes." The work is published by Messrs. Sampson Low, Maraton, Searle, and Rivington, of Fleet-street, London, and is issued to the subscribers whose names were obtained beforehand at 10s. 6d., but we understand it has been discovered that the price was fixed too low, and that the workwill not be obtainable by the general public so cheaply.

Mr. Tolmer has properly described his career as an adventurous one, and his character and tastes were in his youth just those of one who was tolerably certain to find his sphere in the army, the navy, or some young colony where there was plenty of excitement and hard healthful work. To him fresh air and active exertion were necessary to make existence endurable danger and hard knocks came as matters of course and gave zest to life. Australia, and this colony certainly, in days gone by owed much to men of this temperament who were real pioneers when there were many hardships to endureand many perils to be faced.

Mr. Tolmer has no English blood in his veins. His father was a Frenchman, of German extraction on the male side, and was one of the great Napoleon's veterans, who, however, grew tired of the Empire when the little corporal was sent to Elba, and consequently on Bonaparte's return had to take refuge in England with his wife, a Frenchwoman, who died on British soil two months after the birth of the author, who was her only child. Mr. Alexander Tolmer was educated in France and England, and obtained a mastery of the languages of both countries, but seems to have been less attached to severe studies than to the "light fantastic toe," to music, in which divine art he became accomplished, and to muscular Christianity. It is not surprising that his father, who had embraced the profession of a teacher of languages, found it impossible to persuade him to follow the same walk in life.

To cure the boy of a propensity to go to sea, Mr. Tolmer, sen., sent him for a voyage or two, during which he got more kicks than halfpence, and afterwards he enlisted in the volunteer force that went to Portugal in 1833 to fight the battles of Donna Maria against Don Miguel. The force was under the command of Colonel Bacon, whose wife, the late Lady Charlotte Bacon, so well-known in this colony, accompanied him to Portugal, and remained in the country till the close of the war. Having a good seat in the saddle to begin with, Mr. Tolmer joined the Lancers, and became a perfect horseman. skilled in the use of flic lance, and an accomplished swordsman.

His account of his service in Portugal is not only full of exciting and entertaining anecdote, but gives an instructive sketch of the dynastic struggle then going on in that country, and describes to a considerable extent the habits of the people. To the mind's eye of the reader are brought vivid representations of the dare-devil British and the brave Caladores, beleaguered fortresses, fierce conflicts in streets, in cornfields, on bridges and on vine-cladhillsides the retreat, the rally, the splendid cavalry charge and glorious victory, with its harvest of blood and death and suffering. Mr. Tolmer had his share of ''moving accidents by flood and field," and of "hair breadth 'scapes." He was wounded several times—once seriously in the breast—and in a besieged town was, with his comrades and the civilians, reduced by starvation to eat dogs and cats and other choice viands, such as the Parisians were obliged to devour a dozen years ago, when the victorious Germans surrounded their beautiful city.

The war over, Mr. Tolmer was offered a commission in General De Lacy Evans's army about to take the field on behalf of the Queen of Spain, but declined, having had enough of campaigning for a time. He returned to England and then went to France to study, but finally resolving not to become a teacher of languages, as his father wished, he again want back to England, joined the 16th Lancers, was appointed riding-master and drill instructor, made a clandestine marriage, and finally being disappointed in obtaining a commission was advised to come to South Australia. Old colonists had a great dread of ship yarns. with which, when ocean voyages were not so common as they are now, they used to be dreadfully bored, each new comer forgetting that there is, generally speaking, a consider able sameness about experiences at sea. In describing the voyage of the Brankanmore, however, Mr. Tolmer is never tedious. It was long and varied in incidents, and his gift of narrative is pleasantly exercised. At St. Jago, through the misconduct of a fellow-passenger, he got into a row with the Portuguese on board ship he thrashed the first mate, knocked the carpenter down, and kicked the second mate in the abdomen —and served them right.

Arriving in Adelaide in February, 1840, Mr. Tolmer presented to the Governor, Colonel Gawler, a letter of introduction from Colonel Brotherton, His Excellency's companion-in-arms at Waterloo, and was at once appointed sub-inspector of police. Afterwards he became successively inspector, superintendent, commissioner, and police magistrate. Then he established the gold escort from the Victorian diggings to Adelaide, and here his fame and culminated. Afterwards he disagreed with some of his subordinates, and called for aboard of enquiry,which resulted in his being removed from his position as commissioner and replaced in that of inspector, Major Warburton succeeding him in the higher office. Afterwards Mr. Tolmer was made superintendent, but he had a trying time of it from the period of Major Warbarton's appearance on the scene.

To the general reader the long account of the disagreements in the force from this time, December, 1853, till Mr. Tolmer's connection with the force ceased, between two and three years later, with all the voluminous correspondence relating to these unhappy disputes, will be somewhat wearisome but Mr. Tolmer felt it his duty to vindicate himself from the charges brought against him, and to demonstrate that throughout he had been most unjustly treated. How far he has succeeded in these objects is a question on which we need not pronounce a decided opinion. According to his own showing there were faults on both sides. There was evident justification for Major Warbarton's charges against Mr. Tolmer of want of tact and temper in dealing with other officers, and want of fair consideration for their feelings but these very faults the Major exhibited in his conduct towards the officer he rebuked and complained of. But whatever errors Mr. Tolmer committed, he paid a heavy penalty. Having by his eminent services, in critical periods of the colony's history, laid the community under a deep and lasting debt of obligation, he was superseded by a gentleman who had no claims upon the public, and who never afterwards by success in the management of the police force justified his appointment. The force, however, is highly efficient now, and we need not dwell on that unsatisfactory portion of to history.

During Mr. Tolmer's connection with the police their duties were of the most arduous character, calling for qualities of no common order on the part of officers and men. Our small population was invaded by convicts, many of them of the worst possible character from the older colonies. They came by land and sea along the banks of the Murray or by way of the Coorong—singly or in companies each overland party with sheep or cattle contributed a few burglars or a murderer or two from the parent colony while felons of all kinds and degrees sailed from Van Diemen's Land for these shores. Nearly all the prisoners at each gaol delivery were men who had left their country for their country's good. Had our police been insufficient then the consequences to the scattered population of South Australia would have been most appalling, and it was truly providential that there were such men as Tolmer and Alford, and others who served with them, to grapple with the evil. They took pride and pleasure in their work, and the greater the toil and danger involved in their pursuit of criminals, the more they seemed to enjoy it. The ordinary "detective's album" becomes nauseating, but in the accounts of the pursuit of brigands among the mountain ranges, across plain and river and through the scrub and forest of a new wild country, there is a romance and exhilirating excitement not to be found in the vulgar pages of the Newgate Calendar.

In those days the police of this colony were renowned throughout Australia. A gang of bushrangers and murderers, on whose heads heavy prices were set by the Government of Van Diemen's Land, and who had baffled for three years all the efforts of the constabulary of that island to capture them, were taken by Mr. Tolmer and his men on Yorke's Peninsula a few weeks after the miscreants had landed there, and soon afterwards ended their career on the gallows at Hobart Town. Other runaways from beyond our borders who took to bushranging in this colony graced the scaffold in Adelaide, and many scores were sent back either to Sydney or VanDiemen's Land. Kangaroo Island was a refuge for some of the offscourings of the earth, but Inspector Tolmer routed the vermin out of this haunt, and returned them to the places from which they had fled. The natives also had to be dealt with in those days, and it was no easy matter to capture the wily savage in the scrub about and beyond Port Lincoln. The old story of the massacre of the crew and passengers of the Maria by the Coorong blacks, and the punishment of the ringleaders in that crime, is well told by Mr. Tolmer.

Who among us of middle age does not well remember Tolmer's escort, without which the Bullion Act would to a great extent have failed of its effect. This escort was proposed, organised, and managed by Mr. Tolmer. It enabled South Australian diggers, who were of all classes of our society,to send their gold from Bendigo or Forest Creek to Adelaide and sell it at £3 11 s., the price fixed by the Bullion Act, at a time when the price obtainable in Victoria was under £3. The danger to the escort party from bushrangers was by no means thrilling, and the perils from flood in the winter time were of no common order. On one trip the spring-cart was washed away after the gold had been taken out, and Mr. Tolmer had to swim about a creek, down which the waters were coming in full flood, in order to save some of the horses, and then he dived and recovered successively six bags of the precious metal that were lying on the bottom of the stream.

After leaving the police Mr. Tolmer made an attempt to forestall the late Mr. Stuart, the renowned explorer, in crossing the continent, but was driven back by drought. Afterwards he tried sheepfarming in the Long Desert, but twenty years ago he received the appointment of inspector-ranger, which he kept till after the liberalisation of our land system, he was appointed inspector of credit selections, which office he now holds. It says much for Mr. Tolmer's energy and for his fine constitution that has outlasted so much work, worry, exposure, and bodily injury, that he is able to perform the laborious duties neces sarily attached to his position.

The "Reminiscences" embrace many subjects and many incidents of a social, convivial, sporting, and humorous kind. One chapter is devoted to his thoroughbred mare Norah, probably the greatest trotter that was ever bred in this hemisphere. There is nothing in Mr. Tolmer's Portuguese experiences more wonderful than some of the events recorded as having occurred in South Australia, and which are in the memory of many old colonists. The book before us brings back scenes in which some "pioneers" who have long passed away were prominent figures in fact it is saddening to think how the muster roll has thinned of the writer's contemporaries. This of itself, however, makes the book more valuable, for it is an excellent addition to our records of the early days of the colony. Though making no pretensions to literary skill, Mr. Tolmer has an easy but vigorous style, and considerable power of graphic description. Of his sanguine temperament some of the passages in this work afford amusing illustrations. He takes a real interest in what is going on around him, enjoys life, appreciates scenery, loves a good horse, and possesses in a high degree the faculty of fighting his battles o'er again, of realising and reproducing bygone scenes in which he has played a part. We can confidently recommend this book as one that will well repay the reader, and as being worthy of a place in every library.

-MR. TOLMER'S REMINISCENCES. (1883, February 12). The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889), p. 6.


" Reminiscences of an Adventurous and Chequered Career at Home and at the Antipodes" online at


The death of Captain Alexander Tolmer removes an old colonist who was intimately connected with many of the stirring incidents of the early days of South Australia. His career was of a most varied character, both before and after his arrival here, and while occupying different positions in the colonial service he was instrumental in capturing some of the notorious bushrangers of the early times. A little time ago he took a trip home to recruit his health, from which he returned in the latter part of last year. The illness to which he succumbed— inflammation of the brain —was only of about a week's duration, and although after the first few days he appeared to be getting better a relapse set in, and he died at his residence, Mitcham, on Friday, March 7. At the time of his death he was 75 years of age, and he leaves a widow and family.

Captain Tolmer was the son of a French officer, of German extraction, who migrated to England after the return of Bonaparte from Elba in 1815. After leaving school he had for a while some experiences at sea, and then enlisted in the expedition that was fitted out in England in 1832 to aid Donna Maria against Don Miguel in Portugal. As a lancer in the British Legion he served under General Bacon through a portion of the campaign in Portugal. Declining a commission under Sir DeLacy Evans, he returned to England, and shortly afterwards enlisted in the 16th Lancers. After serving for some time he retired from the army and emigrated to Australia in the ship Brankanmore, arriving in Adelaide towards the end of 1839.

In February, 1840, he was appointed by Governor Gawler sub inspector of mounted police, Mr. Inman being at that time superintendent. A few months later the Board of Police Commissioners was dissolved, and Major O'Halloran was appointed Commissioner of Police. Sub-Inspector Tolmer being created inspector of mounted and rural police. The same year a corps of Volunteer Militia was formed, and Mr. Tolmer was appointed adjutant of cavalry with the rank of captain.

In his position in the police he carried out many of the expeditions against the bushrangers and natives in the early days, being prominently connected with that against the murderers of the passengers and crew of the brig Maria, which was wrecked at Encounter Bay in August, 1840.

In 18144 he distinguished himself by the capture of a gang of bushrangers on Kangaroo Island in 1848 by the capture of another gang on Yorke's Peninsula. In the following year he went in pursuit of the natives who murdered Captain Beever in the Port Lincoln district, and was successful in his quest.

In August, 1819, when Mr. G. F. Dashwood, at that time commissioner of police, accepted the appointment of stipendiary magistrate at Port Adelaide, Mr. Tolmer was temporarily appointed commissioner of police and police magistrate, the clerk at the Police Court at that time being Mr. S. Beddome, the present magistrate. Fifteen months later Mr. Dashwood resumed the office, but in January, 1852, when Mr. Dashwood was placed at the head of the Customs Department, Mr. Tolmer was permanently appointed to those positions.

A year or so later the rush to the Victorian diggings took place, and when the difficulty arose of obtaining money in Adelaide for the gold brought back by successful diggers, the Bullion Act was passed empowering the Government to establish an assay office and convert the gold into stamped ingots to be exchanged with the banks for their notes. Mr. Tolmer then proposed the establishment of a mounted police escort to bring the gold across to Adelaide. The suggestion was adopted and Mr. Tolmer took charge of the first escort, bringing back gold dust and money to the amount of £21,000 on this experimental trip. He reached Adelaide with the escort on March 21, 1862, and received an ovation on the successful issue of his mission, He took three trips in all that year, and conveyed £188,146 worth of gold from the Bendigo diggings.

In the following year a difference occurred between the commissioner and Inspector Stuart, regarding which a board of enquiry was held. In November Mr. Tolmer was relieved of the office of commissioner and appointed superintendent, Major P. E. Warburton being placed at the head of the force. The duties of this office he discharged till March 1, 1856, when the Government dispensed with his services on account of reductions in the force.

He then proceeded to organise an expedition to cross the continent, but he was unable to get further than Arkaba Creek owing to the want of horses and the unfavorable season. Mr. Tolmer was unsuccessful in forming a second expedition, and having met with bad fortune in an attempt at sheep-farming— he some time afterwards re-entered the Government service as inspector of credit selections, but shortly afterwards he retired from active service.

He recently received the Royal permission to wear the Portuguese Order of the Tower and Sword. In 1882 he published a couple of volumes, ' Early Reminiscences,' giving an account of many of the exciting episodes in his career.

The funeral of the deceased gentleman took place on Sunday afternoon, March 9, About 4 o'clock a gun-carriage bearing the coffin containing the remains of the deceased gentleman, left his residence, Belle View, Mitcham, for St. Michael's Church, where the service for the dead peculiar to the Church of England was read by the Rev. F. W Samwell the incumbent of the church. A procession was then formed in the following order :— The Police Band, the Military Band, the body, the deceased's family, members of the S.A. Police Force, both foot and mounted members of the S.A. Militia, infantry, artillery, lancers General Downes and staff, and the general public .The funeral cortege slowly wended its way to the picturesque cemetery situated on the heights of Mitcham, both bands alternately playing the Dead March from 'Saul.' On arrival the coffin was borne on the shoulders of several members of the Military Force, and the burial service having been read by Mr. Sam well the body was lowered into the grave, a firing party composed of members of the Permanent Force under Lieutenant Hawker discharged three volleys, and the Military Band played 'Go bury thy sorrow,' which terminated the mournful ceremony.

Around the grave, in addition to the members of the deceased gentleman's family, we noticed the Commandant of the Military Forces (Major General Downes), Brigade - Major Lovett, Lieutenant- Colonel Madley, Major Ferguson, Major Rowell, Major Plummer, Captain Dean, Captain Rowell, Captain Taylor, Captain Foster, Veterinary Surgeon Bickford, Lieu tenants Bickford, Cate, Downes, Clucas, Smith, Hughes, and Morley, Commissioner Peterswald, Inspector Hunt and Sullivan, Sub Inspector Shaw, and Messrs. W. S. Neill (Commissioner of Railways), W. D. Scott (Master of Supreme Court), Morgan, Hawkes, G. Mallen. E. H. Hallaok. W. Giddings, R, Brown, T. F. Duffield, W. Gooch, M. H. Davis, August Davies. Jno. Clark, W. Dean, N. Kildael, J. Oreswell, J. Dowie, P. Ormiston, O. Levi, J. Bartlett, A. J. Batt. J. S. Duff, A. King, T. Moyle. J. Sadler, G. Ball, A, M. Pettinger, J. Whitehouse. S. Heaeltine, R. Patterson H, J. Morris, I. Powell. E. Barrett, E. Reed, A. Foster, J. Chapman, C. Hamilton, and W. Packer. Apologies for non attendance were received from Lieutenant Colonel Makin, Major Peterswald, Messrs. J, N. Perry, C. W. Davies, W. M. Green, J. Moorhouse, A. Peterswald, and A. M. Woods.

Kangaroo II IX-121 - History



Notion of Roman Curia (art. 1)
Structure of the Dicasteries (arts. 2-10)
Procedure (arts. 11-21)
Meetings of Cardinals (arts. 22-23)
Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Questions
of the Apostolic See (arts. 24-25)
Relations with Particular Churches (arts. 26-27)
Ad limina
Visits (arts. 28-32)
Pastoral Character of the Activity of the Roman Curia (arts. 33-35)
Central Labour Office (art. 36)
Regulations (arts. 37-38)

First Section (arts. 41-44)
Second Section (arts. 45-47)

Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (arts. 48-55)
Congregation for the Oriental Churches (arts. 56-61)
Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (arts. 62-70)
Congregation for the Causes of Saints (arts. 71-74)
Congregation for Bishops (arts. 75-84)
Pontifical Commission for Latin America
(arts. 83-84)
Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (arts. 85-92)
Congregation for the Clergy (arts. 93-104)
Pontifical Commission Preserving the Patrimony of Art and History
(arts. 99-104)
Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and for Societies of Apostolic Life (arts. 105-111)
Congregation of Seminaries and Educational Institutions (arts. 112-116)

Apostolic Penitentiary (arts. 117-120)
Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura (arts. 121-125)
Tribunal of the Roman Rota (arts. 126-130)

Pontifical Council for the Laity (arts. 131-134)
Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity (arts. 135-138)
Pontifical Council for the Family (arts. 139-141)
Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (arts. 142-144)
Pontifical Council Cor unum (arts. 145-148)
Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People (arts. 149-151)
Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers (arts. 152-153)
Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts (arts. 154-158)
Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialogue (arts. 159-162)
Pontifical Council for Dialogue with Non-Believers (arts. 163-165)
Pontifical Council for Culture (arts. 166-168)
Pontifical Council for Social Communications (arts. 169-170)

Apostolic Camera (art. 171)
Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (arts. 172-175)
Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See (arts. 176-179)

Prefecture of the Papal Household (arts. 180-181)
Office for the Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff (art. 182)

Pastoral Significance of the Visit ad limina Apostolorum (cf. arts. 28-32)

The Collaborators of the Apostolic See as a Work Community (cf. arts. 33-36)
Apostolic Letter Apostolica Sedes by John Paul II on the meaning of work performed for the Apostolic See

c Copyright 1998 for the English-language translation of the Apostolic Constitution "Pastor bonus" by Francis C.C.F. Kelly (Ottawa), James H. Provost (Washington) and Michel Thériault (Ottawa). Posted on the Vatican Web Site by permission of the copyright owners.

The translation was first completed in 1993. In 1997, it was revised by Michel Thériault subsequently, it went under a new revision by the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Secretariat of State. After a final revision by Michel Thériault, the translation was considered to be faithful to the letter and spirit of the original text and its publication was authorized by the
Secretariat of State.

Fun Facts

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Life Under Franco

Many Republican figures fled the country in the wake of the civil war, and military tribunals were set up to try those who remained. These tribunals sent thousands more Spaniards to their death, and Franco himself admitted in the mid-1940s that he had 26,000 political prisoners under lock and key. The Franco regime also essentially made Catholicism the only tolerated religion, banned the Catalan and Basque languages outside the home, forbade Catalan and Basque names for newborns, barred labor unions, promoted economic self-sufficiency policies and created a vast secret police network to spy on citizens.

Though he sympathized with the Axis powers, Franco largely stayed out of World War II (1939-45) but did send nearly 50,000 volunteers to fight alongside the Germans on the Soviet front. Franco also opened his ports to German submarines and invaded the internationally administered city of Tangier in Morocco. Following the war, Spain faced diplomatic and economic isolation, but that began to thaw as the Cold War heated up. In 1953 Spain allowed the United States to construct three air bases and a naval base on its soil in return for military and economic aid.

As Franco aged, he increasingly avoided daily political affairs, preferring instead to hunt and fish. At the same time, police controls and press censorship began to relax, strikes and protests became more commonplace, some free-market reforms were introduced, tourism increased and Morocco gained its independence. Franco died on November 20, 1975, after suffering a series of heart attacks. At his funeral, many mourners raised their arm in a fascist salute.

Watch the video: Kangaroo (January 2023).

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