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Arab League formed

Arab League formed


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Representatives from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Yemen meet in Cairo to establish the Arab League, a regional organization of Arab states. Formed to foster economic growth in the region, resolve disputes between its members, and coordinate political aims, members of the Arab League formed a council, with each state receiving one vote. Fifteen more Arab nations eventually joined the organization, which established a common market in 1965.


The Arab League: Background & Overview


Arab League Flag

The League of Arab States, or Arab League, was formed in Cairo March 22, 1945, for the purpose of securing Arab unity. Because of inter-Arab rivalries, the League has generally been unable to pursue a consistent agenda beyond general opposition to Israel. Even that issue became a source of tension when Egypt signed its peace treaty with Israel in 1979. The League suspended Egypt&rsquos membership and moved its headquarters from Cairo to Tunis. In 1989, Egypt was readmitted, and Cairo again became the League&rsquos base of operations.

The League meets periodically, with its main decision-making council convening biannually. Though unanimous decisions of the council are supposed to be binding on all members, individual states have often gone their own way. One example of this is the inconsistent enforcement of the Arab League&rsquos boycott of Israel.

The League&rsquos founding members were Egypt, Iraq, Jordan (originally Transjordan), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Yemen. Other Arab countries became members later or as they gained their independence: Algeria (1962), Bahrain (1971), Comoros (1993), Djibouti (1977), Kuwait (1961), Libya (1953), Mauritania (1973), Morocco (1958), Oman (1971), Qatar (1971), Somalia (1974), Southern Yemen (1967), Sudan (1956), Tunisia (1958) and the United Arab Emirates (1971). The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was admitted in 1976 and is now considered the State of Palestine. Today, the League has 22 members (Southern Yemen united with the north) with four observer states: Eritrea (2003), Brazil, Venezuela and India.

During the 27 th annual Arab League summit, in July 2016, the Palestinian representative assailed the other delegates with accusations that the plight of the Palestinian people had fallen from their priorities.

President Donald Trump&rsquos Special Representative for International Negotiations Jason Greenblatt attended the 28 th annual Arab League summit as an observer in March 2016. Although as an observer Greenblatt did not endorse the speeches given or resolutions approved by the League, he held multiple meetings with Arab League representatives.

Arab League officials accused Iran of destabilizing activities in the region and labelled Hezbollah a terrorist organization in November 2017, but stopped short at taking any action against either.

In a major defeat, the Palestinian Authority failed on September 9, 2020, to get the Arab League&rsquos foreign ministers to endorse a resolution criticizing the U.S.-brokered normalization deal between Israel and the United Arab Emirates.

Sources: League of Arab States
Lawrence Franklin, &ldquoWhat the Arab League Meeting Reveals,&rdquo The Gatestone Institute, (August 1, 2016)
Special Representative for International Negotiations Greenblatt&rsquos March 27-29 Trip to Jordan, US Embassy in Jordan, (March 29, 2017)
Zaid Sabah. Arab League Condemns Iran, Calls Hezbollah a Terrorist Group, Bloomberg, (November 19, 2017)
Barak Ravid, &ldquoPalestinians fail to get Arab League to condemn Israel-UAE deal,&rdquo Axios, (September 9, 2020).

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United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine

By 1947, the British announced their desire to terminate the Palestine Mandate and placed the Question of Palestine before the United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations. The UN created UNSCOP (the UN Special Committee on Palestine) on May 15, 1947, with representatives from 11 countries. UNSCOP conducted hearings and surveyed the situation in Palestine, then issued a report on August 31 recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem placed under international administration.

On November 29, the UN General Assembly voted 33 to 13, with 10 abstentions, to adopt a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of the Plan of Partition. The division was to take effect on the date of British withdrawal. The partition plan required that the proposed states grant full civil rights to all people within their borders regardless of race, religion, or gender. Both the United States and Soviet Union supported the resolution. The five members of the Arab League, who were voting members at the time, voted against the Plan.

The Jewish Agency, the Jewish state-in-formation, accepted the plan, and nearly all Jews in Palestine rejoiced at the news.

The partition plan was rejected out of hand by Palestinian Arab leadership and by most of the Arab population. Meeting in Cairo on November and December 1947, the Arab League adopted a series of resolutions endorsing a military solution to the conflict.

Britain announced that it would accept the partition plan, but refused to enforce it, arguing it was not accepted by the Arabs. Britain also refused to share the administration of Palestine with the UN Palestine Commission during the transitional period. In September 1947, the British government announced that the Mandate for Palestine would end at midnight on May 14, 1948.

Some Jewish organizations also opposed the proposal. Irgun leader Menachem Begin announced, “The partition of the Homeland is illegal. It will never be recognized. The signature by institutions and individuals of the partition agreement is invalid. It will not bind the Jewish people. Jerusalem was and will forever be our capital. Eretz Israel will be restored to the people of Israel. All of it. And for ever.” These views were publicly rejected by the majority of the nascent Jewish state.

Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the UN plan was not implemented.

United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine 1947: A map of the UN plan for partitioning Palestine into independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem.


This Week in Israel’s History: The Arab League is Formed

On March 17, 1945, the Preparatory Council of the Arab League began meeting in Cairo to draw up a charter for pan-Arab cooperation. Six Arab states – Egypt, Transjordan, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Syria – participated in the meetings which were chaired by the Egyptian Prime Minister. Musa al Alami, a Jerusalem-born Arab politician and administrator who had worked in the British High Commissioner’s Office, was the representative of the Arabs in Palestine. A seventh country, Yemen, was not present for the deliberations, but would be an original signer of the constitution on March 22nd.

After days of deliberation, an agreement was reached on two seemingly conflicting issues: pan-Arab nationalism and the sovereignty and independence of each member state. The Arab League Constitution was signed in a ceremony marked by speeches from each of the six states represented at the signing ceremony. Al Alami did not sign the constitution Yemen would sign the pact on May 5th.

The constitution signatories agreed to settle disputes between member states collaborate on economic, cultural and social welfare issues and safeguard the independence of its members. Arab League headquarters were established in Cairo, and regular sessions were scheduled to be held biannually.

In December 1945, the Arab League declared a formal economic boycott of Jewish products and goods, which remained in force well beyond the signing of the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli and 1994 Jordanian-Israeli treaties.

In 2014, there were 22 states in the Arab League, which continued to reject the recognition of the State of Israel. On March 9, 2014, the Arab League backed Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas’ refusal to recognize Israel as a Jewish state as a precondition in peace negotiations. Nabil Elaraby, the head of the Arab League, stated, “The council of the Arab League confirms its support for the Palestinian leadership in its effort to end the Israeli occupation over Palestinian lands, and emphasizes its rejection of recognizing Israel as a ‘Jewish state.’”


The Arab League: Founding & History

The Arab League is a regional organization that was founded on March 22, 1945. The league’s function is to promote political cooperation among it’s member states, and to deal with disputes or any breaches of peace in the region. The league’s official name is the League of Arab States. The founding members of the league are: Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Jordan, and Yemen. Membership in the League was later extended to Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Somalia, Southern Yemen, Sudan, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. The headquarters of the League is located in Cairo, and it is run by a secretary general which is appointed by the league members. The work of any international organization which attempts to promote peace and political cooperation is usually confronted by several failures. However, in the case of the Arab League it has been evident that it is unable to sustain the peace within the region or aid in any political cooperation between the member states.

The Gulf War could be said to be a test to the power of the Arab League and its presumed cooperation and handling problems strategies. The war started off by the invasion of Kuwait by its neighbor Iraq, both are member states in the Arab League. When the war started the status of the League at the time was murky. This could have been largely due to that all agreements are held in secret talks and through conversations held outside regular meetings. Furthermore, the activities of the League are unknown and usually misunderstood by the outside world, due to the organization has been eager to secure publicity for its activities. It is said that one of the main reasons that the governments of the Arab states can’t unite, is due to the imbalance of wealth, population and military power in the region (the economist 25). Under the articles of the Arab League, it was decided that the members of the league would aid one another in economic and military matters (khalil). Therefore, the question of allocating the wealth of the Arab countries was solved. Moreover, the League cannot intervene in the way any of the countries wishes to allocate its resources. Furthermore, since the 1980s the league has failed to show any kind of unity. In 1983, Syria’s President Assad supported a mutiny with the PLO against Yassir Arafat.

However, such acts cannot be prevented by the league since when in session those allegations were denied. Furthermore, in 1989 Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, North Yemen, and Saudi Arabia joined together to form a new Arab Co-operation Council (international 53). All five members are also members of the Arab League, which basically does the same functions as the new council. Meanwhile, the Arab League had not yet reinstated Egypt as a full time member, since President Sadat’s signing of the peace treaty with Israel (international 53). The only evident reason that allowed Saudi Arabia to agree for Egypt to join the new council, was that it feared that Iraq would take control over the council and start bothering it’s Arab neighbors, since it has ended it’s war with Iran (international 53). Saudi Arabia along with the other council members, needed Egypt’s military power to balance the tables at the council. It has become evident that the problems of the Arab League are due to faults in the organization, but due to the faults of the leaders of such an organization. In June, 1996 the Arab Summit took place in Egypt. The summit was called to discuss the newly elected Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu. However, the summit seemed to concentrate on something else. “They may be standing together in a show of unity in Cairo, but many of the Arab leaders gathered here have been known to seek the title of kingpin of the Middle East” (Roth,1).


The fact that this quote has been said is alone proof of a rivalry between the Arab leaders. Though that this rivalry is nothing serious, it does show a kind of lack of trust betweenArab leaders, whom all want to be in control. With the creation of the League of Arab states, which was set forth by El-Nahas Pasha, Egyptian Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1945, with the goal to build a strong and united Arab world, the world changed its view of the nomadic tribes that lived in this region. Through time, the problem of Arab unity has become a greater threat to the outside world, “the Arab world seems almost like a sleeping giant, rising up now to show its might” (young,1).

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Strategy [ edit | edit source ]

A good starting country is Egypt, as it has many resources and is one of the strongest countries in the Arab League. Upon spawning in, your main priority is to ally France, Germany, UK, or Russia. Securing relations with these countries is not needed, but it is recommended if any countries would like to invade you or stop your expansion into the rest of Africa or Asia. Usually, countries who wish to stop you are Italy, Spain, Turkey, and sometimes an Iran player. Stopping these countries diplomatically may only work for Iran, as Persian Empire is a relatively hard formable to make. As for the rest of them, forming the Italian Empire is easier than Roman Empire, the Spanish Empire is the only other formable for Spain other than the Iberian Union, which is one of the easiest formables to make, and Turkey players usually go for Asian countries first.

After securing relations place troops your Libyan and Israeli borders. Quickly invade Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Mauritania, and Morocco. This is so you can stop European expansion unto Africa. After successfully doing this, invade Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. At this point, it is suggested to form Mamluk Sultanate. For the extra stability.

After this invade, Sudan, Eritrea (optional), Djibouti, Somalia, and Comoros. Invading the rest of the Arabian Peninsula should be relatively easy.

Forming the Arab League may be a long and cumbersome, as European countries can easily make alliances and invade you at any moment.

Saharan players should strive to form the Saharan Kingdom, as you do not need to invade many countries. If you are playing as Sudan or Egypt, form the Saharan Kingdom, then invade the rest of the Nile to form the Nile Empire. Doing this should give you a straight shot to forming the African Union.


Editorial: the Arab League

The Charter of the Arab League, which was signed at Cairo last week, is an impressive tribute to Arab diplomacy. For unity is by no means the simple and natural thing which it is sometimes represented to be. In reality Syria, Transjordan, Iraq, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, and the Yemen, the members of the League, are divided by almost as many disputes and differences as the states of Europe. To mention only the most important of these, there are the deep suspicion of the strict Wahabis in the south for the looser forms of Islam, the ancient hostility between the primitive Arabs of the desert and the “civilised” Arabs of Syria and Lebanon, and the dynastic feud between the Hashemite dynasty, which still rules in Iraq and Transjordan, and King Ibn Saud, the masterful conqueror who now holds the holy cities of Mecca and Medina from which King Hussein originally came.


Arab League

The Arab League (Arabic: الجامعة العربية‎ al-Jāmiʻa al-ʻArabiyya), officially called the League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية‎ Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya), is a regional organization of Arab states in Southwest Asia, and North and Northeast Africa. It was formed in Cairo on March 22, 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan after 1946), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Syria. Yemen joined as a member on May 5, 1945. The Arab League currently has twenty-two members and four observers. The main goal of the league is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries."

Through institutions such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALESCO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific and social programs designed to promote the interests of the Arab world. It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes, and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter which sets out the principles for economic activities in the region.

Each member state has one vote in the League Council, while decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic, and social programs of its members, and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation on April 13, 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defense measures.

The Arab league has played an important role in shaping school curricula, advancing the role of women in the Arab societies, promoting child welfare, encouraging youth and sports programs, preserving Arab cultural heritage, and fostering cultural exchanges between the member states. Literacy campaigns have been launched, intellectual works reproduced, and modern technical terminology is translated for the use within member states. The league encourages measures against crime and drug abuse, and deals with labor issues—particularly among the emigrant Arab workforce.


Timeline: Arab League

1942 - British begin promoting idea of Arab League in an attempt win over Arabs as allies in war against Germany.

1944 - Official representatives from Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, North Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan (Jordan) and Arab community in British Mandate Palestine meet in Alexandria, Egypt, and agree to form the League of Arab States.

1945 - Arab states sign Arab League Pact, thereby formally inaugurating the league.

1946 - Arab League members sign Cultural Treaty.

1950 - League members sign Joint Defence and Economic Cooperation Treaty.

1953 - Economic and Social Council formed Libya joins the Arab League.

1956 - Sudan joins the Arab League.

1958 - Morocco and Tunisia join the Arab League the League is recognised by the United Nations, and becomes the UN's organisation for education, science and culture in the Arab region.

1961 - Kuwait joins the Arab League.

1962 - Algeria joins the Arab League.

1964 - The first summit is convened in Cairo in January the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALESCO) is set up second league summit in September welcomes the establishment of the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO).

1967 - South Yemen joins the Arab League.

1971 - Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates join the Arab League.

1973 - Mauritania joins the Arab League.

1974 - Somalia and Palestine (represented by the PLO ) join the Arab League.

1976 - Arab League summit in Cairo authorises the formation and deployment of an Arab peacekeeping force in Lebanon.

1977 - Djibouti joins the Arab League.

1979 - Egypt is suspended from the Arab League in the wake of President Anwar Sadat's visit to Jerusalem and Egypt's peace agreement with Israel the Arab League headquarters are moved to the Tunisian capital, Tunis.

1987 - Arab League extraordinary summit endorses a statement supporting what it described as Iraq's defence of its legitimate rights in its dispute with Iran and criticising Iran for its delay in accepting a UN-proposed ceasefire.

1989 - Egypt is readmitted into the Arab League the league's headquarters are moved back to Cairo.

1990 May - Summit meeting in Baghdad criticises Western efforts to prevent Iraq from developing advanced weapons technology.

1990 August - At emergency summit, 12 out of 20 states present condemn the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait unified Yemen joins the Arab League.

1993 - Comoros joins the Arab League.

1994 - Arab League condemns decision by the Gulf Cooperation Council to end the secondary and tertiary trade embargo against Israel and insists that the embargo can be lifted only by the league's council.

1996 - Arab League Council rules that waters of Euphrates and Tigris rivers be shared between Iraq, Syria and Turkey. This followed complaints by Syria and Iraq that construction work in Turkey was restricting supplies.

1998 - Arab League head condemns use or threat of force against Iraq league denounces bomb attacks against US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania and US missile strikes against Afghanistan and Sudan.

2001 - Amr Moussa appointed secretary-general, replacing Ismat Abdel Meguid.

2002 March - Beirut summit endorses Saudi initiative offering Israel normal relations with Arab world in return for a pullback to its 1967 borders.

2003 March/April - US-led overthrow of Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein: Some league members, including Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain offer facilities for the invasion. Others, including Syria, strongly oppose it.

2004 August - Emergency talks in Cairo to discuss the crisis in Sudan's Darfur region: League is unwilling to accept sanctions or international military intervention.

2004 September - League's head Amr Moussa says "the gates of hell are open in Iraq" as the body meets in Cairo.

2005 January - Free trade zone between 17 Arab League countries comes into force.

2005 March - Algiers summit decides to re-launch 2002 initiative offering Israel normal relations in return for a pullback to its 1967 borders.

2008 July - Arab League ministers condemn International Criminal Court (ICC) for seeking arrest of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir for charges of war crimes and genocide in Darfur.

2008 September - Arab League chief Amr Moussa says Arab governments considering sanctions against rowing Palestinian political factions Fatah and Hamas if they are seen to obstruct reconciliation efforts by the League.

2009 March - Arab League ends annual summit with show of support for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, who is wanted for war crimes by the International Criminal Court.

2010 June - Arab League head Amr Moussa visits Gaza as the first senior Arab official to do so since the Islamist militant group Hamas took over in 2007.

2011 January - Amr Moussa warns region's leaders to heed the problems that sparked Tunisia's political upheaval, saying they are common to all Arab states.

2011 February - Arab League bars Libya from meetings after hundreds are killed during an anti-government uprising.

2011 March - Arab League backs UN resolution authorising attacks on Libyan air defences.

2011 May - Arab League elects Egyptian diplomat Nabil Al-Arabi to succeed Amr Moussa as secretary-general.

Arab League supports Palestinian bid to become a "fully-fledged state" and UN member.

2011 August - Arab League issues first condemnation of Syrian government repression of nationwide uprisings, calling for an immediate end to the violence.

2011 November - Arab League suspends Syria for failing to stick to a deal that included halting military action and starting talks with the opposition.


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