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A Succinct Timeline of Roman Emperors—400 Years of Power Condensed

A Succinct Timeline of Roman Emperors—400 Years of Power Condensed


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To say that the Roman Empire had its ups and downs would be the understatement of all understatements. No “nation” was more abruptly destabilized or even more abruptly stabilized than that of ancient Rome…perhaps with the exception of the United States.

Following the events of the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, Octavian, adopted son of the first dictator Julius Caesar, took over sole power of Rome and all her provinces. It was in this moment that the Republic officially transformed into the Empire. Octavian—renamed Augustus at the beginning of the new Principate—ruled for forty years before his death. The heir he secured was his adopted son Tiberius, though unfortunately Tiberius’ reluctance to rule as Emperor was not well-hidden. For the length of his reign—though he was respected—Tiberius attempted to let the Senate lead the affairs of the state.

A statue of Augustus as a younger Octavian, dated ca. 30 BC.

The Dynasty Augustus: Caligula, Claudius, and Nero

Following Tiberius was his great nephew Caligula who ruled for just under four years. His sadistic leadership and essential emptying of the city’s treasuries—coupled, of course, with his overtly immoral sexual tendencies, led to a swift assassination. Caligula’s uncle Claudius was handed the Empire next, as the Senate was forced to make a quick decision when Caligula left no heir. (Or rather, his assassin left no living heir.)

  • The Search Is On For Caligula’s Orgy Boats Where His Twisted Fantasies May Have Been Played Out
  • The Praetorian Guards: To Serve and Protect the Roman Emperors… Most of the Time

Emperor Caligula. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

Claudius’ leadership was filled with compassion and expansion. Caligula’s conspirators were pardoned, supposedly for the prevention of another assassination, while Claudius led his army the furthest into Britain they had ever been. Under Claudius, the first proper Roman colonia was founded at modern Colchester.

Proclaiming Claudius Emperor. (1867) By Lawrence Alma-Tadema. In one version of the tale of Claudius’ rise as the Emperor of Rome the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain after Caligula’s death and proclaimed him as the emperor.

This dynasty, however, would not last much longer. Poisoned (supposedly) by his own wife, Claudius was succeeded by his stepson, the infamous Emperor Nero . This emperor who spent an extraordinary amount of money on a Golden House, squashed the revolt of Queen Boudicca in Brittania, and purportedly played the fiddle while Rome burned around him, would last (rather surprisingly) for thirteen years as Rome’s leader. His death, a suicide influenced by the likelihood of assassination, brought an abrupt and fierce end to the dynasty Augustus attempted to create, and would pave the way for extensive Senatorial consideration about the benefits and pitfalls of blood-lineages.

A plaster bust of Nero, Pushkin Museum, Moscow. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

The Flavian Dynasty: Vespasian and his Sons

After Nero’s death, the power of the Principate was left without an owner. Thus followed the year of the Four Emperors—Galba, Otho, and Vitellus—eventually ending in the success of military general Vespasian as the new leader of the Roman people. Vespasian's rule and that of his two sons, Titus and Domitian, was riddled with military victory. The borders of Rome expanded, and powerful strides were made both in the eastern and western parts of the Empire. Vespasian rebuilt much of the city, including beginning the transformation of Nero's Domus Aurea into the renowned Colosseum.

  • Lost History of a Mad Man? Revealing the Surprisingly Compassionate Side of Nero, One of the “Worst” Ancient Roman Emperors
  • Damnation of Memory and the Efforts to Erase the Condemned from History

Vespasian. Plaster cast in Pushkin museum after original in Louvre. (Sariling gawa/ CC BY SA 3.0 )

Meanwhile, Titus’ two-year leadership—though proceeded by a valiant triumph over Judea—was predominately spent dealing with the greatest natural disaster of the Roman world: the explosion of Vesuvius in 79 AD. It is a shame that Vespasian and Titus’ stable reigns ended when Vespasian’s younger son ascended in only 81 AD. Domitian, unfortunately for both the Roman people and the Flavian name, drove a wedge between the Senate and the army, in part because of the lavish paychecks he gave his soldiers. His assassination brought the Flavian dynasty to a screeching halt.

Bust of Roman emperor Domitianus. Antique head, body added in the 18th century. Musée du Louvre (Ma 1264), Paris. Formerly in the Albani Collection in Rome. (Sailko/ CC BY SA 3.0 )

Nerva, Trajan, and Hadrian - The Nervan end of the Nervan-Antonine Dynasty

The Nervan-Antonine dynasty rose next—Nerva, the first namesake of the lineage, a friend of Domitian's and, more importantly, of the Senate. This dynasty was the first that purposely attempted to name successors outside the family. For the first few generations, this succeeded (in part due to a lack of heirs). Yet it also appears that the Senate’s belief that empires suffered under blood dynasties rule was accurate. While this peace would not last, the Roman Empire had almost one hundred years of more politically and mentally stable rulers.

Bronze statue of emperor Nerva, Forum of Nerva, Rome. (Carole Raddato/ CC BY SA 2.0 )

Under Nerva, the army and the Senate—the two "bodies" with the most power—ceased the feud caused by Domitian. His successor, Trajan, would surpass him after two years, not only in length of rulership, but in military deeds and civic duty. Best remembered for his double defeat of the Dacians in 101-102 and 105-106 AD, Trajan brought order and calm to the regions of modern day Romania for the first time. Trajan was then able to focus his attentions on public building projects, such as the Forum.

Statue of Roman Emperor Trajan at Tower Hill, London. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

Hadrian, leader from Trajan's death in 117 until 138, quickly became another favored ruler. His philhellenism—love for all things Greek—would benefit his time as Emperor as he incorporated Greek art and architecture into Roman building projects and encouraged the study of the Greek language and academics (i.e., philosophy, literature, etc.). Hadrian also furthered the boundaries of the Empire to northern Britain (culminating in the construction of Hadrian's Wall), and later to Judea in the east.

The view along Hadrian's Wall towards Housesteads Roman Fort. ( CC BY-NC 2.0 )

The Antonine Part of the Nervan-Antonine Dynasty: Antoninus Pius, Lucius Verus, and Marcus Aurelius

Antoninus Pius followed Hadrian from 138-161 AD and continued the trend of stable leadership. Though he was known for appreciating the more luxurious side of court life, Antoninus' time as emperor is positively remembered for its lack of documented military victories or defeats under Antoninus directly. Any provincial disruptions were handled predominately by the governors of the various regions and generals of the Roman army, additional powers granted by Antoninus as needed. Antoninus was more concerned, it seems, with improving Rome proper. On his death, Marcus Aurelius was left as heir, ruling jointly with Lucius Verus from 161 until Verus' death in 169.

Bust of Antoninus Pius, circa 150 AD.

The philosopher-king of the Empire, Marcus Aurelius ruled as an intellect rather than a general. While his reign saw numerous victories against eastern and northern enemies, Marcus himself focused on stepping away from Antoninus' lavish preferences and putting more emphasis on personally responding to the people. Thus, when his legitimate son Commodus came to sole power in 181 AD, Rome was shaken by the increasingly unstable and reckless behavior. Within just over ten years, Commodus was assassinated in his bath.

Marcus Aurelius Distributing Bread to the People

The Year of the Five Emperors

The Year of the Five Emperors followed Commodus' untimely death, as distressing as the Year of the Four Emperors a hundred years prior. Once again, men attempted to gain power backed by their individual armies. In essence, there was more than one "declared" emperor at any given time of the year 193 AD.

The strife came to an end when Libyan Septimus Severus gained control; Severus ruled until 211, though his son Caracalla was co-emperor starting in 198 AD. Caracalla was, unfortunately, another blood-heir whose mental state should have been examined before being handed absolute power. After ensuring his brother's murder, Caracalla almost destroyed the Roman economy before embarking on one reckless conquest after another. Few were disappointed when his own soldier finally slew Caracalla while his back was turned.

  • The Philosopher-King of Ancient Rome: Marcus Aurelius' Imperium
  • Little Emperors and Their Regents: Child Rulers & the Supportive and Destructive People Behind Them

Bust of the emperor Caracalla. ( CC BY 2.5 )

A Soured Empire

Though the Roman Empire continued after Caracalla’s death, the respectability of it quickly soured. Imperial strife, economic hardships, and military greed forced Rome into the Crisis of the Third Century (235–284 AD), which only came to an end with the ascension of Diocletian in 284 AD. It was Diocletian who officially split the Empire; from his reign on, every emperor (now called an Augustus) had a co-emperor stationed in the opposite region—one ruled from Rome westward; the other from Byzantium eastward. Further, both emperors had a second-in-command leader, called a Caesar. Rome would never again be united.

The Inquisition of St. George by the Emperor Diocletian.

This author argues that the official end of the Empire came at the end of the 5th century, when the western empire was overrun and sacked. While the eastern empire remained until the early medieval period—first as Byzantium then as Constantinople—it is often argued that what made Rome the most revered Empire in history had been lost long before the west fell, and was never recaptured by the east. The eastern empire slowly shifted away from the western ideals, as more and more influence from Greece and Turkey overwhelmed previously Roman values. Byzantium became its own unique type of Empire, while the remnants of Rome faded into the background of the migrating Germanic nations.


Main keywords of the article below: rome, history, ancient, highlights, timeline, events.

The term Ancient Rome refers to the city of Rome, which was located in central Italy and also to the empire it came to rule, which covered the entire Mediterranean basin and much of western Europe. [3] The rise and fall of Ancient Rome formed a crucial episode in the rise of Western civilization. [3] The civilization of Ancient Rome was rooted, directly or indirectly, in all these earlier culture. [3] Regal Period of ancient Rome from Founding to Birth of the Republic. [4] THE ROMAN EMPIRE INTERACTIVE DIAGRAM: Why were the Romans successful Empire builders? Roman Empire - Ancient Rome Government - SUPER! BBC - History: Romans Roman Empire: 509 BC-AD 1453 HWC, The Julio-Claudians and Roman Emperors - The Imperial Index - much more on specific Emperors available below in the section on the Emperors. [5] MISC. ROMAN SITES BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Death in Rome BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Gladiator: Dressed to Kill Game BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Housesteads Fort BBC GAME - Roman Sacrificial Blade - CDX The Amazing Ancient World - BRIDGES BETWEEN CULTURES Roma - Important Neighbors Secrets of the Dead. [5] Harry Sidebottom is a lecturer in ancient history at Lincoln College, Oxford, and author of the Warrior of Rome and Throne of the Caesars series of novels. [6]

Pantheon Rome Virtual Reality Image - Pantheon Piazza di Pietra, Rome Roman Forum - Ancient Rome: The Roman Forum Roman Baths - For more, check out the Daily Life section above. [5] ROMAN LAW Did you know? It was the custom in Ancient Rome for the men to place their right hand on their testicles when taking an oath. [5] In 387 BCE Ancient Rome is sacked and looted by the Gauls, a neighboring empire. [7] ROMAN RELIGION & PHILOSOPHY BBC - Roman Religion Gallery Roman Religion Roman Mythology Ancient Rome: Roman Religion more on Roman Religion Religion in the Home Cosmic Mystery of Mithras: Mithraism - Ancient Religion - EAWC Essay: Mithraism - The Ecole Initiative: Mithraism Roman Philosophy Hellenistic / Roman Religion & Philosophy VIA ROMANA: Philosophy For more info, check out the section on Judiasm and Christianity in the Roman Empire below. [5] The gladiator is most likely the first image one calls to mind when thinking about entertainment in ancient Rome. [8]

Timeline of Ancient Rome which signifies the first form of modern civilization in the history human kind development. [9]

Pontifex Maximus was the highest religious post in the Ancient Rome. [10] Cases of suicide are known to have occurred in ancient Rome, as they have been recorded by ancient writers. [8]

Test your knowledge about Timeline of Ancient Rome with this online quiz. [11] This is a very brief timeline of events concerning ancient Rome. [11]

It's time to lose yourself in the ancient Rome and learn something about history with this Rome Timeline Infographic. [12] Ancient Rome by the Mining Co. There are several good pages here covering the history of Rome, including the Early & Republican History page, the Punic Wars page, and the History of the Empire page. [13] Ancient Rome Nicely annotated links to other sites on the subjects of: archaeology, art and architecture, history, literature, philosophy, and religion. [13] Follow the strands of history with these unique teaching aids! A pictorial history of ancient Rome is depicted from the years 753 B.C. through 476 A.D. Colorfully illustrated with precise detail, the reverse side includes reproducible activity cards for extending classroom activities. [14] Another valuable site for maps of ancient Rome is the European Maps Archive, with separate maps depicting many stages in Rome's history and growth. [13]

Ancient History Sourcebook: Rome This Sourcebook, like the other ones, provide pointers to the histories and literature of the Republic and Empire, as well as numerous other helps. [13]

Exploring Ancient World Cultures: Ancient Rome A well-done introduction to the culture of Ancient Rome, with links. [13] Ancient Rome Links One of the better links pages, including many useful sites. [13]

Roman society changed enormously over time as Rome expanded from small city-state to huge empire Throughout almost all Roman history, however, the basic class distinctions of Roman society remained in place. [3] The city of Rome was sacked, but by that time, the capital of the Empire was no longer in the city. [2] This was the first time in 800 years that the city of Rome has fallen to an enemy. [1] First Dacian War : The Dacian king Decebalus reaffirmed his loyalty to Rome, ending the war. [15] First Mithridatic War : A peace was agreed between Rome and Pontus under which the latter returned to its prewar borders. [15] Sulla's first civil war : The consul Sulla led an army of his partisans across the pomerium into Rome. [15] Roman-Etruscan Wars : A Clusian army failed to conquer Rome. [15]

The Curiate Assembly, one of the legislative assemblies of the Roman Kingdom, elected Ancus Marcius King of Rome. [15] Ptolemy of Mauretania, king of Mauretania and a Roman client, was murdered on Caligula's orders during a state visit to Rome. [15] "Gallic Catastrophe:" Duke Brennus of the Celts defeats the Romans at Allia, and subsequently sacks Rome. [4] Rome expanded, extending to about 350 square miles during this period, but the Romans didn't care for their monarchs and got rid of them. [2]

Following tradition, this timeline marks the deposition of Romulus Augustulus and the Fall of Constantinople as the end of Rome in the west and east, respectively. [15] Rome defeats Etruscan Veii in the Veientine War the Etruscan king Lars Tolumnius is killed. [4] Lars Porsenna, Etruscan king of Chiusi, lays siege to Rome. [4]

Battle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC) : Rome dealt a bloody defeat to the Etruscans at Lake Vadimo. [15] Rome wins a naval battle against Carthage at Sulcis during the First Punic War. [4] Carthage defeats Rome in a naval battle at Drepanum during the First Punic War. [4] Rome wins a land battle south of Tunis during the First Punic War. [4] Rome lands an army of four legions on African soil at Clupea during the First Punic War. [4] Rome besieges and sacks Agrigento on Sicily in one of the first actions of the First Punic War. [4] Rome builds a fleet of 120 ships in just 60 days to fight the First Punic War. [4]

The semi-legendary celeres or trossuli - a 300-man cavalry corps which the first kings of Rome incorporated into the legion - is formed, later their number is increased to 600. [4] The first temple of the Dioscuri (Castor & Pollux) is dedicated in Rome by Aulus Postumius following his victory over the Latins at the Battle of Lake Regillus. [4] Huge stone bridges, the first of their kind, were thrown across rivers multistoried aqueducts marched across valleys and awe-inspiring buildings such as the Pantheon in Rome, and much later the Cathedral of S. Sophia in Constantinople, used domed roofs to enclose larger areas than any other building until the 16th century. [3] First documented martydom in the Colosseum of Rome, that of St. Ignatius of Antioch. [4] The traditional date when the Circus Maximus of Rome is first laid out. [4] Two plebeians hold the two positions of censor for the first time in Rome. [4] By the Iron Age (at some point in time between c.1000-c.800 B.C.), there were huts in Rome Etruscans were extending their civilization into Campania Greek cities had sent colonists to the Italic Peninsula. [2] In its early centuries Rome was particularly influenced by the powerful Etruscan civilization to its north, from which it acquired many aspects of its culture. [3] Rome sacks the Etruscan town of Veii after a ten-year siege. [4] Rome declares war on Carthage after Hannibal sacks Saguntum in Spain. [4] Mercenary War : Carthage surrendered its claims on Sardinia and Corsica to Rome. [15] Civil wars of the Tetrarchy : Rioters in Rome acclaimed Maximian's son Maxentius ruler of Rome. [15] Florianus, prefect of the Praetorian Guard and commander of Roman forces in the west, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops. [15] Marcus Aurelius Probus, commander of Roman forces in the east and Tacitus's half-brother, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops. [15] The Legio XIV Gemina acclaimed its commander Septimius Severus ruler of Rome at Carnuntum. [15] The armies of the Danube region acclaimed their commander Trebonianus Gallus ruler of Rome. [15] Magnentius, commander of the Jovians and Herculians, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his legions. [15] The army elected Maximinus Thrax, commander of the Legio IV Italica, ruler of Rome. [15] The army acclaimed Aemilianus, governor of Pannonia and Moesia, ruler of Rome. [15] The Praetorian Guard assassinated Galba and acclaimed Otho ruler of Rome. [15] The Praetorian Guard acclaimed the former consul Didius Julianus, who had provided the highest bid, ruler of Rome. [15] The Praetorian Guard acclaimed their prefect Macrinus ruler of Rome. [15] The Praetorian Guard acclaimed the consul Pertinax ruler of Rome at the Castra Praetoria. [15] The Praetorian Guard elected their prefect Carus ruler of Rome. [15] Elagabalus was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard, which installed his young cousin Severus Alexander as ruler of Rome. [15]

The general Postumus was declared ruler of Rome in the Gallic Empire. [15] The Senate accepted the general Hadrian as ruler of Rome, following the appearance of documents indicating he had been adopted by Trajan. [15] The general Claudius Gothicus was declared ruler of Rome by his soldiers. [15]

The Senate recognized Vespasian, the commander of Roman forces in Egypt and Judea, as ruler of Rome. [15]

This list begins with the founding of the village of Rome around 753 BCE and continues to the fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE. It is particularly detailed for the period from 58 BCE to 31 BCE (Julius Caesar to Caesar Augustus) and for 376 CE to 480 CE (the "fall" of the Western Roman Empire). [16] In 395 AD, Rome split into two empires - the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. [1]

We will deal further with the impact of Rome when we look at the roots of Western civilization. [3]

A relative by marriage of Marius, Julius Caesar created civil war in Rome. [2] Forum of Caesar constructed in Rome by Julius Caesar as another area to conduct judicial business. [4]

At the height of its empire, Rome was probably the largest city on the planet, with more than a million inhabitants. [3] Samnite Wars : Rome conquered and colonized the Samnite city of Venosa. [15] Battle of Lautulae : A decisive Samnite victory near Terracina split Rome in half. [15] Battle of Aquae Sextiae : Rome decisively defeated the forces of the Teutons and Ambrones and killed some ninety thousand soldiers and civilians. [15] Rome defeats a Carthaginian army at the battle of Metaurus. [4] A Carthaginian army attacks Numidia, breaking the peace treaty agreed with Rome and sparking the Third Punic War. [4] Banking had been practiced in Rome since at least the days of the 2nd Punic War (218-202 BCE). [3]

Sack of Rome (410) : Rome was sacked by the Visigoths under their king Alaric I. [15] The (semi-mythological) seven kings of Rome : Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tulus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. [4] Servius Tullius was murdered by his daughter Tullia Minor and her husband Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, who declared himself king of Rome on the steps of the Curia Hostilia. [15] Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome, dies in exile at Cumae. [4] The latter agreed to the overthrow and expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and to a provisional constitution under which two consuls acted as a joint executive and a Curiate Assembly held legislative power, and swore never again to let a king rule Rome. [15]

Rome sends an army of 80,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry to attack Carthage. [4] In large cities such as Rome, apartment blocks as high as five stories (or even more, before the emperor Augustus imposed housing regulations) were built, divided into many rooms. [3]

Social War (91-88 BC) : The Roman clients in Italy the Marsi, the Paeligni, the Vestini, the Marrucini, the Picentes, the Frentani, the Hirpini, the Iapyges, Pompeii, Venosa, Lucania and Samnium rebelled against Rome. [15] He will become one of the military advisors of king Antiochos III Megas in his war against Rome. [4] Fourth Macedonian War : An Andriscus rebelled against Rome, claiming to be Perseus's son and the rightful king of Macedonia. [15]

Revolt of the Batavi : Gaius Julius Civilis, commander of the Batavi auxiliaries in the Rhine legions, turned against Rome. [15]

These rested on the development of the first form of concrete in history, a step that took place in southern Italy in the 2nd century BCE. This material (which used volcanic lava as its base) was crucial to Roman architectural innovations such as the arch and the dome. [3] The Roman world saw the next major step along this path with the building of the first water mills recorded by history. [3]

Roman Empire Timeline Timeline Description: The Roman Empire was one of the greatest civilizations in history. [1] This is a timeline of Roman history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the Roman Kingdom and Republic and the Roman and Byzantine Empires. [15] Ancient Roman history lasted for more than a millennium, during which the government changed substantially from kings to Republic to Empire. [2] The central period of Roman history runs from about the second century B.C. through the second century A.D., roughly, the late Republic to the Severan dynasty of emperors. [2] It changed considerably over the long period of Roman history, but for most of this time it was based around the legion. [3]

This timeline shows these major divisions over time and the defining features of each, with links to further timelines showing the key events in each period. [2] This timeline goes from 753 BC to 27 BC and then from 64 AD to 1453 AD. [1]

The most famous of these was that of the Ancient Greeks, but others included those of the Phoenicians, the Carthaginians and the Etruscans, plus several lesser-known peoples such as the Lycians. [3] Hannibal crosses the Ebro river in Spain and sacks the city of Saguntum, Rome's ally, sparking off the Second Punic War. [4]

Roman Empire, the ancient empire, centred on the city of Rome, that was established in 27 bce following the demise of the Roman Republic and continuing to the final eclipse of the Empire of the West in the 5th century ce. [17] Rome expanded vastly and became the largest empire of the ancient era with the population of 50 to 80 million population. [10]

While the eastern empire remained until the early medieval period--first as Byzantium then as Constantinople--it is often argued that what made Rome the most revered Empire in history had been lost long before the west fell, and was never recaptured by the east. [8] L. Cornelius Sulla marches upon Rome, the first in history to do so. [18] Rome history was divided into three different era -Before the rise of Rome, Roman Republic, and Roman Empire. [10]

As with the foundation of the city, later Romans believed they knew the precise date of the beginning of the Republic: 509 BC, when the seventh and last king of Rome, the tyrannical Tarquinius Superbus, was thought to have been ousted by an aristocratic coup. [6] By the last century BC, Romans believed that Rome had been founded in exactly 753 BC. The story was that the twins Romulus and Remus, sons of the god Mars, were left to die by being put in a basket, set adrift on the river Tiber. [6] A period of unrest and civil wars in the 1st century bc marked the transition of Rome from a republic to an empire. [17] Rome started as an Iron Age hunt village in the mid of 8th country BC. It had expanded into 6.5 million square kilometers, civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic to an increasingly autocratic empire during its 12 centuries of existences. [10]

Although Roman resilience and resources were stretched to near breaking point by a string of defeats, Rome ultimately emerged victorious, and the war marked the end of Carthage as a regional power. [6] In his so-called "settlement of the east’ (a modern term which obscures the expansionist nature of his activities), Pompey established two new Roman provinces (Syria and Bithynia-Pontus), vastly expanded a third (Cilicia), and conducted diplomacy that turned numerous local rulers into clients of Rome. [6] After Rome emerged victorious, the settlement they imposed underpinned subsequent Roman conquests of Italy and overseas territories. [6] The fall of Rome was completed in 476, when the German chieftain Odoacer deposed the last Roman emperor of the West, Romulus Augustulus. [17] Imperial strife, economic hardships, and military greed forced Rome into the Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 AD), which only came to an end with the ascension of Diocletian in 284 AD. It was Diocletian who officially split the Empire from his reign on, every emperor (now called an Augustus ) had a co-emperor stationed in the opposite region--one ruled from Rome westward the other from Byzantium eastward. [8] Gaius Octavian Thurinus (Julius Caesar's nephew) became the first emperor of the Rome and took the name Augustus Caesar. [10] Octavian named Augustus and is officially the first Emperor of Rome. [18]

Rome demonstrated its adaptability in building its first large war fleet, and its almost limitless manpower in building several replacements after repeated catastrophic disasters. [6] Following the events of the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, Octavian, adopted son of the first dictator Julius Caesar, took over sole power of Rome and all her provinces. [8] JULIUS CAESAR The Julius Caesar Site Rome: Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar - SUPER! Julius Caesar: Historical Background The Landings of Caesar in Britain, 55 and 54 BC - More on Caesar's military command in the warfare section below. [5]

This period encompassed the career of Julius Caesar, who eventually took full power over Rome as its dictator. [17] Although Julius Caesar ruled Rome as the emperor for a while he was never considered as Emperor. [10] Whoops! Julius was not the first dictator of Rome by a long shot. [10]

Rome fought three wars against the great North African city of Carthage. [6] Rome, historic city and capital of Roma provincia (province), of Lazio regione (region), and of the country of Italy. [17] The West was severely shaken in 410, when the city of Rome was sacked by the Visigoths, a wandering nation of Germanic peoples from the northeast. [17]

During the later republic and most of the empire, Rome was the dominant power in the entire Mediterranean basin, most of western Europe, and large areas of northern Africa. [17] When Theodosius died, in 395, Rome split into Eastern and Western empires. [17] The borders of Rome expanded, and powerful strides were made both in the eastern and western parts of the Empire. [8] The Punic Wars left Rome as the dominant power in the western Mediterranean. [6] The Third Punic War (149-146 BC) was a foregone conclusion, in which Rome was finally successful in destroying its hated rival. [6]

Augustus ruled the Roman Empire from 31 BCE to 14 BCE. During his time he made many remarkable changes in the Rome. [10] In 280 BCE many Greek cities in South Italy were taken by Rome. [7]

Among the beloved rulers of Rome were Trajan (reigned 98-117), Hadrian (117-138), Antoninus Pius (138-161), and Marcus Aurelius (161-180). [17] Under Augustus, Rome began to prosper once again, and the emperor came to be looked upon as a god. [17]

The Romans possessed a powerful army and were gifted in the applied arts of law, government, city planning, and statecraft, but they also acknowledged and adopted contributions of other ancient peoples--most notably, those of the Greeks, much of whose culture was thereby preserved. [17] The Romans had conquered ancient Greece and became almost a copycat civilization, taking many of the architectural, artistic, and even their religious elements from them. [19] The Ancient Roman empire was one of the largest ancient civilizations, almost all of Europe by itself at the height of its power. [19] ROMAN HOMES Roman House The Roman Home Diagram of a Roman House A Roman House ancient roman housing - homes Life in Pompeii Roman House Sources Age, Gender and Status Divisions at Mealtime in the Roman House More info on Roman Architecture below in the section on Art. [5]

By the last century BC, these generals would lead their armies against Rome and each other. [6] The consul L. Julius Caesar passes a law, the lex Julia de civitate Latinus et sociis danda, which gives the citizenship to those Italians who had not taken up arms against Rome. [18]

All Romans had been recalled to Rome and the Emperor Honorious told the people of Britain that they no longer had a connection to Rome and that they should defend themselves. [20] AD 401 A large amount of troops are withdrawn from Britain to assist with the war again Alaric I, who is attempting to sack Rome. [21] AD 369 A large force from Rome, led by military commander Theodosius, arrives in Britain and drives back the Barbarians. [21] AD 197 After a period of in-fighting within Rome, a series of military commissioners arrive in Britain looking to purge any supporters of the recently ousted usurper, Decimus Clodius. [21] He also starts building the famous 'Saxon Shore Forts' along the coasts of Britain, both to strengthen defenses against the Germanic tribes to the east but also to prevent Rome from sending a fleet to recover Britain for the empire. [21]

Below is a Roman Britain timeline, featuring the most important events in the Roman occupation of Britain, from Julius Caesar's first attempts at invasion to the fall of the island to the Saxons to the military success of the Britons, leading to the legends of King Arthur. [20] From Julius Caesar's first landing on the shoreline of England in 55BC to the famous 'Look to your own defences' letter of AD410, the Romans played an important part in British history for over 400 years. [21] I love the study of Ancient Roman architecture, art, history and the incredible society they built. [9]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(21 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Contents

The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed to have been 'legitimate' emperors, and who appear in published regnal lists. [5] [6] [7] The word 'legitimate' is used by most authors, but usually without clear definition, perhaps not surprisingly, since the emperorship was itself rather vaguely defined legally. In Augustus' original formulation, the princeps was selected by either the Senate or "the people" of Rome, but quite quickly the legions became an acknowledged stand-in for "the people." A person could be proclaimed as emperor by their troops or by "the mob" in the street, but in theory needed to be confirmed by the Senate. The coercion that frequently resulted was implied in this formulation. Furthermore, a sitting emperor was empowered to name a successor and take him on as apprentice in government and in that case the Senate had no role to play, although it sometimes did when a successor lacked the power to inhibit bids by rival claimants. By the medieval (or Byzantine) period, the very definition of the Senate became vague as well, adding to the complication. [8]

Lists of legitimate emperors are therefore partly influenced by the subjective views of those compiling them, and also partly by historical convention. Many of the 'legitimate' emperors listed here acceded to the position by usurpation, and many 'illegitimate' claimants had a legitimate claim to the position. That said, this list uses the following criteria:

  • Any individual who undisputedly ruled the whole Empire, at some point, is a 'legitimate emperor' (1).
  • Any individual who was nominated as heir or co-emperor by a legitimate emperor (1), and who succeeded to rule in his own right, is a legitimate emperor (2).
  • Where there were multiple claimants, and none were legitimate heirs, the claimant accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor is the legitimate emperor (3), at least during the Principate.

So for instance, Aurelian, though acceding to the throne by usurpation, was the sole and undisputed monarch between 270 and 275, and thus was a legitimate emperor. Gallienus, though not in control of the whole Empire, and plagued by other claimants, was the legitimate heir of (the legitimate emperor) Valerian. Claudius Gothicus, though acceding illegally, and not in control of the whole Empire, was the only claimant accepted by the Senate, and thus, for his reign, was the legitimate emperor. Equally, during the Year of the Four Emperors, all claimants, though not undisputed, were at some point accepted by the Senate and are thus included conversely, during the Year of the Five Emperors neither Pescennius Niger nor Clodius Albinus were accepted by the Senate, and are thus not included. There are a few examples where individuals were made co-emperor, but never wielded power in their own right (typically the child of an emperor) these emperors are legitimate, but are not included in regnal lists, and in this article are listed together with the senior emperor.

Emperors after 395 Edit

After 395, the list of emperors in the East is based on the same general criteria, with the exception that the emperor only had to be in undisputed control of the Eastern part of the empire, or be the legitimate heir of the Eastern emperor.

The situation in the West is more complex. Throughout the final years of the Western Empire (395–480) the Eastern emperor was considered the senior emperor, and a Western emperor was only legitimate if recognized as such by the Eastern emperor. Furthermore, after 455 the Western emperor ceased to be a relevant figure and there was sometimes no claimant at all. For the sake of historical completeness, all Western Emperors after 455 are included in this list, even if they were not recognized by the Eastern Empire [9] some of these technically illegitimate emperors are included in regnal lists, while others are not. For instance, Romulus Augustulus was technically a usurper who ruled only the Italian peninsula and was never legally recognized. However, he was traditionally considered the "last Roman Emperor" by 18th and 19th century western scholars and his overthrow by Odoacer used as the marking point between historical epochs, and as such he is usually included in regnal lists. However, modern scholarship has confirmed that Romulus Augustulus' predecessor, Julius Nepos continued to rule as emperor in the other Western holdings and as a figurehead for Odoacer's rule in Italy until Nepos' death in 480. Since the question of what constitutes an emperor can be ambiguous, and dating the "fall of the Western Empire" arbitrary, this list includes details of both figures.


Main keywords of the article below: rome, list, ancient, top, ruled, emperors, 10.

KEY TOPICS
Here is the list of top 10 emperors who had ever ruled in ancient Rome. [1] After outlining the plan of the course and defining Roman imperial history, Professor Fagan will survey the types of ancient sources that shed light on Rome's emperors. [2] There are family trees to help you make sense of the tangled relationships between ancient Rome's emperors there are illustrations and sculptural depictions of emperors including Augustus, Caligula, Trajan, and Commodus and there are maps that show how Rome's borders expanded and evolved under specific imperial reigns. [2]

For the first 500 years of Ancient Rome, the Roman government was a republic where no single person held ultimate power. [3] Though it would be good to take Professor Fagan's TC History of Ancient Rome first, it is not necessary to do so, as he provides a good background on that period in this course. [2] Famously declared by the senate as the best ruler, optimus princeps which means "the best ruler", he ruled the ancient Rome from 98 AD until he took his last breathe. [1] Rated 5 out of 5 by RoyT from Exceeds Expectations! I have a high opinion of Professor Fagan, having really enjoyed his TC courses on the History of Ancient Rome and Great Battles of the Ancient World. [2] He initiated construction of the temple of peace, a number of public baths and one of the most majestic structures in ancient Rome the Colosseum. [1]

While nobody today is in charge of the entire world, during the time of ancient Rome one person stood above all others: the emperor, the leader of the entire country. [4] They are enjoyable and entertaining to read, appealing to our cultural preconceptions of ancient Rome and its emperors as corrupt and morally bankrupt. [5]


In the east, emperors continued to rule from Constantinople ("New Rome") these are referred to in modern scholarship as " Byzantine emperor " but they used no such title and called themselves "Emperor (or King) of the Romans" (βασιλεύς Ῥωμαίων). [6] Rome had no single constitutional office, title or rank exactly equivalent to the English title "Roman emperor". [6] On balance, the emperors of Rome served as a stabilizing influence in a realm that straddled three continents and covered more than 32 modern nation-states, with a population numbering about 60 million souls at the height of Roman prosperity. [2] Emperor Augustus was treated as a deity during his reign altars and temples were built to honor him throughout the empire - Pergamum, Lyons, and Athens - but none were built in Rome (at least while he still lived). [7] For the next 500 years, Rome became an empire ruled by an emperor. [3] He divided the empire into two parts, one with its capital at Rome and another with its capital as Nicomedia (it would later be moved to Byzantium or Constantinople by Emperor Constantine). [7] As princeps senatus (lit., "first man of the senate"), the emperor could receive foreign embassies to Rome some emperors (such as Tiberius) are known to have delegated this task to the Senate. [6] Not only was Augustus the first, but he was most certainly one of the best emperors Rome ever had. [1] He was the first (and until 1423, the only) emperor to visit Rome after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire. [8] Every emperor held the latter office and title until Gratian surrendered it in AD 382 to Pope Siricius it eventually became an auxiliary honor of the Bishop of Rome. [6] Livia Drusilla (58 BCE - 29 CE) was the third wife of emperor Augustus of Rome, mother of emperor Tiberius, and grandmother. [7] The emperor held a special place in the hearts & minds of the people of Rome, both in life & in death. [7] He never visited the city of Rome during his reign, which marks the beginning of a series of " barracks emperors " who came from the army. [6] Surprisingly, some emperors never set foot in Rome - Macrinus and Maximinius, while at times, there might be more than one claimant such as in the Year of the Five Emperors. [7] The first of five lectures on themes relating to the emperors examines their lavish building projects in Rome, such as the complex of public squares and huge bathhouses. [2] While inside the walls of Rome, the reigning consuls and the emperor held equal authority, each being able to veto each other's proposals and acts, with the emperor holding all of the consul's powers. [6] Outside of Rome, the emperor outranked the consuls and could veto them without the same effects on himself. [6] Often, these assemblies controlled the finances of the kingdom, but in Rome the emperor could collect and spend as he wished. [7] Not only was he Emperor of Rome, but he is also considered one of history's foremost stoic philosophers. [3] In other cases the Emperor was a good, strong leader who brought peace and prosperity to Rome. [3] Even under the worst emperors Rome continued to function, but involvement in public life could become a decidedly dangerous business. [9] In Lectures 27-31 you take a break from the chronological narrative to examine the emperors' relationships to different parts of Roman society: the city of Rome itself, the provinces of the empire, the elite, the people, and the army. [2] Due to the cultural rupture of the Turkish conquest, most western historians treat Constantine XI as the last meaningful claimant to the title Roman Emperor, although from 1453 Ottoman rulers were titled "Caesar of Rome" (Turkish: Kayser-i Rum ) until the Ottoman Empire ended in 1922. [6] Augustus: Known as Octavian during the long civil wars that extinguished the Roman Republic, he titled himself "Augustus," the first emperor of Rome, after vanquishing all rivals and becoming the undisputed strong man of the sprawling empire. [2] More than 50 legitimate emperors ruled Rome from the time of Augustus at the turn of the 1st century to the reign of Constantine in the 4th century, which marked the transition to the Middle Ages. [2] Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus born in 9, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79 and was the forth and final emperor of the "year of the four emperors". [10] Many of them had a stable rule with considerably peaceful reign while at the time of crises, Rome also saw a single year with four emperors and another single year with none less than six emperors. [1] To Latin Catholics of the time, the Pope was the temporal authority as well as spiritual authority, and as Bishop of Rome he was recognized as having the power to anoint or crown a new Roman emperor. [6] Unfortunately, as the eastern half of the empire flourished, the west declined, even the city of Rome fell into ruin, until, finally, in 476 CE, the last emperor surrendered. [7] The last emperor to be bestowed the title by the Senate was Constans II, who was also the last emperor to visit Rome. [6]

Presented by noted Roman historian Garrett G. Fagan, whose other Teaching Company courses, The History of Rome and Great Battles of the Ancient World, have brought antiquity vividly to life for spellbound listeners, these 36 lectures show that there is no end of gripping stories. [2] Roman Empire, the ancient empire, centred on the city of Rome, that was established in 27 bce following the demise of the Roman Republic and continuing to the final eclipse of the Empire of the West in the 5th century ce. [11]

Reference Tacitus Annals and reassess whether Tiberius should be included as one of the "Top 10 greatest emperors of Ancient Rome." [1] The Roman emperors were the designated ruler of Roman empire which started after the end of Roman republic: the period of ancient roman civilization that began with the end of roman kingdom. [1]

Born as Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus in 173, he was the first emperor to never actually set foot in Rome and his rule marked the beginning of the "Crisis of the Third Century". [10] Imperial strife, economic hardships, and military greed forced Rome into the Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 AD), which only came to an end with the ascension of Diocletian in 284 AD. It was Diocletian who officially split the Empire from his reign on, every emperor (now called an Augustus ) had a co-emperor stationed in the opposite region--one ruled from Rome westward the other from Byzantium eastward. [12] Rome had some 16 emperors over the 30 year period in the second half of the third century. [13] This emperor who spent an extraordinary amount of money on a Golden House, squashed the revolt of Queen Boudicca in Brittania, and purportedly played the fiddle while Rome burned around him, would last (rather surprisingly) for thirteen years as Rome’s leader. [12] Are any of these stories that feed our popular conception of the emperor Nero actually true? We’d like to tackle two of the most pervasive misunderstandings about Nero’s reign - that he was responsible for setting fire to Rome and that he had a sexual relationship with his mother, Agrippina the Younger. [5] By comparison, the emperor Nero doesn't have as good a reputation: he killed both his mother and his wife, and some say he set fire to part of Rome in order to construct new buildings. [4] One story involves Nero and his mother being carried through Rome in a litter (a portable couch concealed by curtains), only for the emperor to emerge with suspicious stains on his clothes. [5] Emperor Romulus Augustus reigned during the final fall of Rome in 476. [13] During the interregnum or time between reigns, there was no reigning emperor in Rome. [13] The Roman Empire continued in the East for another millennium, but is typically referred to as the Byzantine Empire, and the emperors considered the Emperor of the Byzantines, not of Rome. [13]

The gladiator is most likely the first image one calls to mind when thinking about entertainment in ancient Rome. [12] If asked to think of a single individual who epitomises the decadence, destruction and debauchery of Ancient Rome, the name Nero would surely be on many people’s lips. [5] Cases of suicide are known to have occurred in ancient Rome, as they have been recorded by ancient writers. [12] For instead of offering a simplistic binary image of democracy versus fascism, ancient Rome created a rich gallery of tyrants who were all different, all montrously unique. [14]

Zenobia was a warrior queen who ruled as emperor of Rome from 267 to 273. [13] As if these sexcapades and murders weren’t enough to keep the youthful emperor busy, he is also supposed to have set fire to Rome, played (or fiddled) while the city burned, and then blamed the Christians in order to deflect attention from himself. [5] The bad emperors of Rome were horribly original in their sicknesses and crimes. [14] Even more scandalous was the fact that the emperor took a mistress who turned out to be the spitting image of his mother - a situation which got tongues wagging throughout Rome. [5] Bust of the emperor Commodus dressed as Hercules, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome. [14]

While Augustus Caesar did not claim the title of emperor, he led Rome's transition from a republic to an empire quite successfully. [13]

Over time, several ancient emperors and kings ruled the region - from Nero the mad tyrant to Vespasian who built the historic Roman Colosseum, Titus who destroyed the temple in Jerusalem to Marcus Aurelius, the philosopher. [15]

Cite this page: Carr, K.E. Tiberius - Roman emperor - ancient Rome. [16]

As with the story of the Fire of Rome, this image of Nero derives solely from ancient rumours, not from facts. [5] When he emerged victorious, he attributed his triumph not to the ancient gods of Rome, but to the god of a hitherto reviled and persecuted sect: the Christians. [17]

List of famous Ancient Roman emperors & kings activists with their biographies that include trivia, interesting facts, timeline and life history. [15]

Although most rulers of ancient Rome were not emperors, the term Roman emperors has become the accepted name for the various kings, first citizens and variously-titled autocrats who ran the place from Julius Caesar onwards. [18] The Senate of Rome heralded the title of "Emperor" upon Gaius Octavianus, the grand nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar in 27 BC. and bestowed upon him the titles of Augustus which means divinely chosen, and Princeps which means the first head. [19] She "managed for him all the business of the empire &hellip she received embassies and sent letter to various communities, governors and kings &hellip" wrote Cassius Dio who lived A.D. 155-235 (translation from the book "Nero Caesar Augustus: Emperor of Rome" by David Shotter, Pearson, 2008). [20] The emperor famously retreated from Rome to the island of Capri midway through his reign--think, perhaps, of the American president quitting Washington and moving permanently to Martha’s Vineyard--which no doubt set the Roman rumor-mills in motion, and there is much to indicate that Tiberius was desperately uncomfortable in the role of emperor. [21] After Augustus died the Emperors of Rome would rule the world for hundreds of years to come. [19] Caracalla was the eldest son of Septimius Severus, the first black African-born Emperor of Rome. [22] In AD 235 the army and the Senate proclaimed him Emperor of Rome. [23] Oh, before I forget, most of us know that Tiberius was Emperor of Rome during Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ's adulthood. [21] Of all the Julio-Claudian emperors for Rome, Tiberius was perhaps the most Republican and also "genuinely savvy," as I put it. [21] The most evil Emperor in such light could not be all wrong there are much more chances that our view of the Julio-Claudian Rome has so many more flaws. [21] Again we chant, blessings on the memorial of the Severan Dynasty, they were the "naigre" Emperors of Rome, from Africa. [22] This story of the other black emperors of Rome will be explored in another write-up, but for now we focus on Caracalla. [22]

The baths of Caracalla were the largest public baths ever built in ancient Rome. [22] Ancient writers claim that he started the great fire of Rome in A.D. 64 so that he could re-build the city center. [20]

After the fall of Romulus Augustulus, in A.D. 476, Rome continued to have an emperor for almost another millennium, but that Roman emperor ruled from the East. [24] Note: All photographs of Roman coins and statuary of emperors before the fall of Rome in 476 A.D., unless otherwise noted, are reproduced from Justin Paola's Collection of Roman Emperors. [25] Black Roman Emperor Karakala The memorials of Caracalla, Septimius Severus, Geta, Maximinus, and a long line of Black, Moorish, African Emperors of Rome reject this lie. [22]

The identification as the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus (titled Herculeus after his patron god or hero) is based on coins struck in the mints of Rome and the western empire from about AD 296 to 308. [26] As Emperor of Rome from 161-180, Marcus Aurelius kept the empire safe from the Parthians and Germans, but is best known for his intellectual pursuits. [27]


Stretching for about 1.2 miles along key archaeological sites of ancient Rome, the exhibition, which runs until Sept. 18, aims to show the many faces of Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (37 - 68 A.D. ). [28] Furthermore in ancient Rome only three general patterns were accepted for biographies: Either the shining hero through and through, the vile tyrant through and through or someone who initially showed promise but then degenerated. [18]

Nero became emperor at just age 17 in 54 A.D. After his people took up arms against him, Nero fled Rome and stabbed himself in the throat before he could be arrested. [28] Follow the fortunes of the empire during the two centuries following Augustus and Tiberius, which included not only some of Rome's wisest and most conscientious emperors, like Trajan and Marcus Aurelius, but also some of its most notorious and deranged tyrants, like Caligula and Nero. [29] Notorious for being a cruel megalomaniac tyrant who persecuted early Christians, had his stepbrother, two of his wives and even his own mother murdered, Rome's fifth emperor, Nero, has never been held dear in Roman history. [28] Explore the century that followed Rome's Golden Age and the time of the Five Good Emperors as the empire suffered through political, military, and economic crises that brought it to the brink of collapse, staged a near-miraculous and unexpected recovery, and underwent an even-more surprising transformation to Christianity. [29]

The Roman Senate fell right in line, naming 24-year-old Caligula, who had no experience in government, diplomacy or war, as sole emperor of Rome. [27]

The Eastern Empire then more or less limped along notes 10 (the old fads of civil wars and murdered emperors never went out of style) until 1453 when it fell to the Ottoman Turks, finally bringing an end to the ancient Roman Empire. [18] Study the military technology of the ancient Chinese and the conflicts through which the first Qin and Han emperors welded together a group of antagonistic kingdoms, creating a united China. [29] Tiberius was an ancient Roman emperor who ruled from year 14 to 37. [27]

After a long period of truly incompetent emperors, Diocletian came to power in 284 CE. The Pax Romana or Roman peace had been dead for over one hundred years. [7] Being pontifex maximus made the emperor the chief administrator of religious affairs, granting him the power to conduct all religious ceremonies, consecrate temples, control the Roman calendar (adding or removing days as needed), appoint the vestal virgins and some flamens, lead the Collegium Pontificum, and summarize the dogma of the Roman religion. [6] Great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar became de facto emperor as a result of the 'first settlement' between himself and the Roman Senate. [8] They were an unpopular choice with the public who threw sticks and stones at them and the senate were forced to elect Gordian III as emperor to appease the roman population. [10] Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus was born in 272 to roman general Constantius Chlorus who in 292 left his mother to marry the daughter of emperor Maximian. [10] Not a single emperor in recorded Roman history was ousted by popular revolution. [2] The famous emperor, who went on to become the first christian emperor in the history, was a ruler of major historical importance.He was also known as constantine as he reunited a divided empire under a single emperor and scored important wins against some ardent enemies like the Franks, Alamanni, Goths and Sarmatians. [1] This lecture surveys the rise to sole rulership of an emperor who would transform the empire and change the course of history: Constantine. [2]

Following the death of Olybrius he was chosen to ascend the throne in 473 but as with other emperors was not recognised by the Emperor of the eastern empire, Leo. [10] The Empire and chain of emperors continued until the death of Constantine XI Palaiologos and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. [8] At first you may think that the Roman republic moving to an empire led by an Emperor was a bad thing. [3] The adopted son and successor of emperor Hadrian, Antoninus Pius went to rule the Roman empire from 138 to 161 AD. His first act as an emperor was to grant honors to his adoptive father Hadrian. [1] The term emperor is a modern construction, used when describing rulers of the Roman Empire because it emphasises the strong links between the ruler and the army (on whose support the ruler's power depended), and does not discriminate between the personal styles of rule and titles in different phases of the Empire. [8] The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both. [6] Marcus Claudius Tacitus was born in 200 and during his early years carried out duties for various civil offices and became consul in 273. after the assassination of Aurelian he was selected by the senate to ascend the throne as emperor and this was supported by the army. [10] Born in Dacia ca. 400, and of Thracian Bessian origin, Leo became a low-ranking officer and served as an attendant of the Gothic commander-in-chief of the army, Aspar, who chose him as emperor on Marcian's death. [8] Born in 1010, he became a lover of Zoe even while Romanos III was alive, and succeeded him upon his death as her husband and emperor. [8] Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus was brother of emperor Claudius II and upon the death of Claudius, Quintillus became emperor himself. [10] Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus was born in 208 and became emperor at 13. [10] Considered as the last of the five good emperors, and one of the most stoic philosophers, Marcus Aurelius ruled the Roman Empire from 161 to 180. [1] Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was the son of the highly able and effective emperor Septimius Severus. [9] The last of the Good Emperors, Marcus Aurelius, chose his natural son Commodus as his successor rather than adopting an heir. [6] Commodus was the son of the philosopher emperor Marcus Aurelius and, although the film’s scene in which Commodus kills his own father is invention, it is true that Commodus was the very opposite of all that his father had stood for. [9]

This Julio-Claudian dynasty came to an end when the Emperor Nero - a great-great-grandson of Augustus through his daughter and of Livia through her son - was deposed in 68. [6] Of the first twelve emperors - Augustus through to Nerva - four would die naturally (although some question one or two of these), four would be assassinated, two would commit suicide, and two would be murdered by poison or suffocation, as one historian put it, "supreme power brought supreme risk." [7] Vespasian started the first dynasty of emperors who had no family connection to Julius Caesar or Augustus. [2] He was later adopted by Augustus as his heir, that is when he took the name Tiberius Julius Caesar, a name bearing the subsequent emperors after Tiberius would also take. [1] Exactly as it says: Tiberius was Emperor after Augustus, from 14 to 37, and did not care for the job. [1] When Constantius died a year later it was Galerius who promoted Severus to the position of Augustus, even though at the same time Constantine had been claimed emperor by his own soldiers. [10] I was not sure if this 2007 course would be as engaging as those others, given the tight focus on the Emperors, from Augustus to Constantine. [2] Under the Tetrarchy, Diocletian set in place a system of co-emperors, styled "Augustus", and junior emperors, styled "Caesar". [6] In the era of Diocletian and beyond, princeps fell into disuse and was replaced with dominus ("lord") later emperors used the formula Imperator Caesar NN. Pius Felix (Invictus) Augustus : NN representing the individual's personal name Pius Felix meaning "Pious and Blest" and Invictus meaning "undefeated". [6] The titles customarily associated with the imperial dignity are imperator ("commander"), which emphasizes the emperor's military supremacy and is the source of the English word emperor Caesar, which was originally a name but came to be used for the designated heir (as Nobilissimus Caesar, "Most Noble Caesar") and was retained upon accession. [6] Early Emperors also used the title princeps (first citizen). [6] The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. [6]

The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king. [6] The Roman elite was obsessed with the struggle for rank, and the emperor determined the winners by the offices he dispensed. [2]

For the sake of historical completeness, all Western Emperors after 455 are included in this list, even if they were not recognized by the Eastern Empire some of these technically illegitimate emperors are included in regnal lists, while others are not. [8] Despite the existence of later potentates styling themselves "emperor", such as the Napoleons, the Habsburg Emperors of Austria, and the Hohenzollern heads of the German Reich, this marked the end of the Western Empire. [6] Since the question of what constitutes an emperor can be ambiguous, and dating the "fall of the Western Empire" arbitrary, this list includes details of both figures. [8] Historians have customarily treated the state of these later Eastern emperors under the name " Byzantine Empire ". [6] After 395, the list of emperors in the East is based on the same general criteria, with the exception that the emperor only had to be in undisputed control of the Eastern part of the empire, or be the legitimate heir of the Eastern emperor. [8]

After the death of Romanos II, he rose to the throne with the support of the army and people as regent for the young emperors Basil II and Constantine VIII, marrying the empress-dowager Theophano. [8] Son-in-law of Theodosius II, proclaimed himself emperor with the support of the army, after the death of Valentinian III. [8] After the death of Pertinax, Julianus who was a senator at the time, proclaimed himself as the new emperor, and this act in itself triggered a brief civil war which was won by Julianus's successor Septimius Severus who then ordered the his execution. [10] After the death of Caligula at the hands of the Praetorian Guard, they found Claudius cowering behind a curtain and hurried him to the Senate, who reluctantly proclaimed him emperor. [7] Proclaimed joint emperor with Balbinus by the Senate in opposition to Maximinus later co-emperor with Balbinus. [8] The final period of co-emperorship began in 395, when Emperor Theodosius I's sons Arcadius and Honorius succeeded as co-emperors. [6] The use of the terms " Byzantium," " Byzantine Empire," and " Byzantine Emperor " to refer to the medieval period of the Roman Empire has been common, but not universal, among Western scholars since the 18th century, and continues to be a subject of specialist debate today. [8] When Trajan acceded to the purple he chose to follow his predecessor's example, adopting Hadrian as his own heir, and the practice then became the customary manner of imperial succession for the next century, producing the " Five Good Emperors " and the Empire's period of greatest stability. [6] In the West, the office of emperor soon degenerated into being little more than a puppet of a succession of Germanic tribal kings, until finally the Heruli Odoacer simply overthrew the child-emperor Romulus Augustulus in 476, shipped the imperial regalia to the Emperor Zeno in Constantinople and became King of Italy. [6] From Diocletian onwards, emperors ruled in an openly monarchic style and did not preserve the nominal principle of a republic, but the contrast with "kings" was maintained: although the imperial succession was generally hereditary, it was only hereditary if there was a suitable candidate acceptable to the army and the bureaucracy, so the principle of automatic inheritance was not adopted. [6] His reign inaugurated the period of the empire's greatest strength and stability, when emperors adopted their successors from among able army commanders. [2] His successor, Nerva, began a new practice: Emperors adopted able army commanders as their heirs. [2] There was no linkage with the gens Flavia, any more than there was with the names of various other dynasties adopted by later emperors, To say that most modern people refer to him as Constantine as though his real name was Aurelius is misleading. [1] Born c. 1174, he rose to prominence as a son-in-law of Alexios III. His brother Constantine Laskaris was elected emperor by the citizens of Constantinople on the day the city fell to the Crusaders he later fled to Nicaea, where Theodore organized the Greek resistance to the Latins. [8] Born on 28 November 1118 as the third and youngest son of John II, he was chosen as emperor over his elder brother Isaac by his father on his deathbed. [8] Upon his elevation to emperor (with the help of the mother of the former emperor Victorinus) he nominated his son Tetricus II as Caesar. [10] As son of the Emperor he was treated as an imperial prince but was always overshadowed by his older brother. [10] With Imperium Maius, the emperor was also granted the power to appoint governors of imperial provinces without the interference of the Senate. [6] A sitting emperor was empowered to name a successor and take him on as apprentice in government and in that case the Senate had no role to play, although it sometimes did when a successor lacked the power to inhibit bids by rival claimants. [8] After Augustus the Senate would never again have any real authority - only to endorse the wishes of the emperor. [7] Every new emperor after him was honored by the Senate with the wish felicior Augusto, melior Traiano which meant "be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan". [1] He actually had a lot of names including Octavius, but was called Augustus once he became emperor. [3] He spent some time reviewing the more complex events for Emperor Augustus. [2] For the most part, the people of the Roman Empire were kept reasonably happy, even during times of duress, as long as the emperors provided grain for bread and games/entertainment. [7] Throughout its entire period, the Roman empire had a number of emperors who took over the rule. [1] Before there were emperors, there was the Roman Republic, founded in 509 B.C. after a period of autocratic rule by kings. [2] Modern scholarship has confirmed that Romulus Augustulus' predecessor, Julius Nepos continued to rule as emperor in the other Western holdings and as a figurehead for Odoacer's rule in Italy until Nepos' death in 480. [8] Once the emperor Severus was killed, Licinius was elevated by Galerius to the position of Augustus to maintain the western front with command over Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia. [10] Once emperor and without an obvious heir, he had adopted Augustus. [30] I quibble with his review of events for Julius Caesar and Emperor Augustus. [2]

The autocratic power of the emperor would endure despite the destructive reigns of Caligula, Nero, Commodus, and Elagabalus. [7] The republic ended, and the emperors were created, when these magistrates became legally and practically subservient to one citizen with power over all other magistrates. [8] The emperor's legal authority derived from an extraordinary concentration of individual powers and offices that were extant in the Republic rather than from a new political office emperors were regularly elected to the offices of consul and censor. [6] There are a few examples where individuals were made co-emperor, but never wielded power in their own right (typically the child of an emperor) these emperors are legitimate, but are not included in regnal lists, and in this article are listed together with the'senior' emperor. [8] As holder of the tribune's power, the emperor would convoke the Council of the People, lay legislation before it, and served as the council's president. [6] He then moved in Italy and continued to be recognized as Eastern emperor by the Christian powers. [6] Regarded as emperor more from historical convention than accuracy, his rule never extended beyond portions of the Italian peninsula and was not recognized by Eastern Emperor Zeno. [8] As emperor, Nero showed little interest in rule and far more in writing poetry and other diversions. [2] Unfortunately, emperors such as Tiberius, Caligula, Nero, Commodus, and Elagabalus were considered too "odious" to receive the honor. [7] Emperors after Tiberius would continue the inter-marrying between these two families and historians refer to this period of time as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. [10] For most of this period, emperors were not chosen on the basis of their ability or honesty, but simply because they were born in the right family. [30] Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus born in 53 and ruled as emperor from 98 to 117. [10] Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus born in 76 and ruled as emperor from 117 to 138. [10] Born in 1006, he became a general and close ally of Isaac Komnenos, and succeeded him as emperor on his abdication. [8] Marcus Maecilius Flavius Eparchius Avitus was born in 395 and was named Master of Soldiers by Emperor Petronius Maximus. [10] A majority of emperors after Marcus Aurelius used Aurelius as part of the name just as those after Vespasian tended to incorporate Flavius. [1] Sejanus used his influence with Tiberius, a few well-planned murders, and a canny marriage alliance to try to become emperor. [2] History tells us these great men were all called kings the term emperor was never used. [7] Some emperors, like Nero or Domitian, have passed into history as models of erratic, paranoid tyrants others, like Diocletian, were able administrators, providing good government (unless you happened to be a Christian, in which case you were in great peril). [9] Lasting monuments were built to honor many of the emperors - the Baths of Caracalla and Nero, the Arch of Constantine, and Trajan's Column. [7] Constantine: The first Christian emperor was apparently reluctant to forsake the old pagan gods they continued to appear in official iconography. [2]

Tzimiskes succeeded Nikephoros as emperor and regent for the young sons of Romanos II. As ruler, Tzimiskes crushed the Rus' in Bulgaria and ended the Bulgarian tsardom before going on to campaign in the East, where he died. [8] The emperor was an absolute ruler who provided stability for the people. [7] In addition to their pontifical office, some emperors were given divine status after death. [6] The consular and censorial offices especially were not an integral part of the Imperial dignity, and were usually held by persons other than the reigning emperor. [6] In 293, following the Crisis of the Third Century which had severely damaged Imperial administration, Emperor Diocletian enacted sweeping reforms that washed away many of the vestiges and façades of republicanism which had characterized the Augustan order in favor of a more frank autocracy. [6] Historians distinguish the Augustan period as the principate and the period from Diocletian to the 7th century reforms of Emperor Heraclius as the dominate (from the Latin for "lord".) [6] Commodus's misrule led to his murder on 31 December 192, following which a brief period of instability quickly gave way to Septimius Severus, who established the Severan dynasty which, except for an interruption in 217-218 when Macrinus was emperor, held the purple until 235. [6] As holding princeps senatus, the emperor declared the opening and closure of each Senate session, declared the Senate's agenda, imposed rules and regulation for the Senate to follow, and met with foreign ambassadors in the name of the Senate. [6] Although not completely defeated until 197 AD, they were not formally accepted by the senate and were therefore not technically reigning emperors. [8] A person could be proclaimed as emperor by their troops or by "the mob" in the street, but in theory needed to be confirmed by the Senate. [8] He certainly turned the surplus he inherited from his father into a heavy deficit. Caracalla was a successful, if ruthless, military commander but he was assassinated by a group of ambitious army officers, including the Praetorian prefect Opellius Macrinus, who promptly proclaimed himself emperor. [9] All the emperors listed here had a minimum reign of 10 years each. [1] Zeno's reign also saw the end of the western line of emperors. [8] In his The Twelve Caesars, historian Suetonius wrote that the emperor improved the overall appearance of the city. [7] Roman emperors ruled over the Imperial Roman Empire starting with Augustus from 27 BCE and continuing in the Western Roman Empire until the late 5th century CE and in the Eastern Roman Empire up to the mid-15th century CE. The emperors would take different titles such as Caesar and Imperator but it was always their command of the army which allowed them to keep their seat on one of history's most prestigious and long-lasting thrones. [7] The Western Roman Empire ended in 476 AD when the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, was defeated by the German, Odoacer. [3] The Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, Tiberius Claudius Nero was son of Livia Drusilla, who later married Augustus in 39 BC, making him step-son of the Octavian. [1] Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was the first roman emperor to be born outside Italy and was born in the region now known as France in 10 BC. [10] Augustus Caesar (27 BCE - 14 CE) was the name of the first and, by most accounts, greatest Roman emperor. [7] For the first three hundred years of Roman Emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, a great effort was made to emphasize that the Emperors were the leaders of a Republic. [6]

His rule started at one of the most troubled times in Roman history the Romans were just recovering from the antics of infamous emperors like Nero and Caligula, and a civil war that saw four emperors in a single year. [1] After years of civil war in Rome, his rule was a time of peace called the Pax Romana (Roman peace). [3] "The coronation of Charles the Great violated all traditional ideas and struck a hard blow at Byzantine interests, for hitherto Byzantium, the new Rome, had unquestionably been regarded as the sole Empire which had taken over the inheritance of the old Roman imperium. [6] The evolution of the church in the no-longer imperial city of Rome and the church in the now supreme Constantinople began to follow divergent paths, culminating in the schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox faiths. [6] He established a standing Roman army, a network of roads, and rebuilt much of the city of Rome. [3] The Senate despised him for this, and told the criticized him to the Roman populace, until he no longer trusted his safety in Rome and left for the island of Capri. [1] Under the republic, regions of the empire were ruled by provincial governors answerable to and authorised by the " Senate and People of Rome ". [8] Before Rome was an empire, it was a republic with a long history of "democratic" rule. [7] Once Probus was killed by his soldiers, a clear path was left for Carus to rule over the empire, though never formally returning to Rome. [10] He defeated Mark Antony together with the famous Egyptian queen Cleopatra and thereafter, together with the senate of Rome, created a new constitution for the great empire. [1] When that step became the new normal, it paved the way for the next step, and so on, until Rome had moved from Augustus, who styled himself the princeps, or "first citizen," to Diocletian and Constantine, who ruled as the domini --lords over slaves. [2] Augustus would later on adopt Tiberius as his own son and though born a "Claudian" (one of the oldest families in Rome) this act of adoption would make Tiberius a "Julian". [10] Marcus Aurelius Carus was born in 230 and was educated in Rome and eventually rose to become a senator. [10]

All these innovative steps showed their colors when Rome became a stronger, more consolidated empire. [1] His great generals Belisarius and Narses reconquered many parts of the empire, including the city of Rome itself. [1] Contrary to the myth, Nero did not start the great fire of Rome, nor did he "fiddle’ (nor even play the lyre), while the city burned - in fact, he organised relief work for its victims and planned the rebuilding. [9]

His "restoration" of powers to the Senate and the people of Rome was a demonstration of his auctoritas and pious respect for tradition. [6] In Augustus' original formulation, the princeps was selected by either the Senate or "the people" of Rome, but quite quickly the legions became an acknowledged stand-in for "the people." [8]

Caesar had a very strong army and became very powerful in Rome. [3] He had a long succession of high authority positions such as governor of Moesia, Germania Inferior, and Hispania Tarraconensis until 238 and became urban prefect of Rome during the reign of Philip the Arab. [10] With the Roman Empire growing too large to manage from Rome, Diocletian split the Roman Empire into two sections the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire. [3] During his rule there were two major disasters, the first being the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 and the great fire of Rome in 80. [10] Rome and its senate were ruled by a variety of magistrates - of whom the consuls were the most powerful. [8] After two decades of civil war, Octavian, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, returned to Rome a hero. [7]

The majority of Roman writers, including Josephus, Pliny the Younger, Suetonius and Appian, as well as most of the ordinary people of the Empire, thought of Julius Caesar as the first Emperor. [6] The Roman people regarded their emperors as equivalent of kings, even though the very first emperor Augustus the great absolutely refused to be taken as a monarch. [1] Augustus, the first emperor, was careful to maintain the façade of republican rule, taking no specific title for his position and calling the concentration of magisterial power princeps senatus (the first man of the senate). [8]

The Eastern (Byzantine) emperors ultimately adopted the title of " Basileus " ( βασιλεύς ), which had meant king in Greek, but became a title reserved solely for the Roman Emperor and the ruler of the Sasanian Empire. [6] After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus and thus became the first Roman Emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty. [1] One of the first Roman emperors to have born outside Italy, his reign lasted from 41 AD to 54 AD. He was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor, and the fact that he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness he was rather unfairly excluded from public office until his consulship by his family. [1] I completely agree with you but here the author is talking about the time period between 27 BC-476 AD (Roman Empire) and Julius Caesar died in 44 BC.Moreover,Augustus was the founder of the Roman empire and the first roman emperor whereas julius caesar was the consul/dictator of the Roman Repbulic and therefore can not be included in this list. [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(34 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Timeline of Roman Britain

From Julius Caesar’s first landing on the shoreline of England in 55BC to the famous ‘Look to your own defences’ letter of AD410, the Romans played an important part in British history for over 400 years. In this article, we take a look at the ups and downs of this often fraught relationship!

55 BC – Julius Caesar leads the first Roman military expedition to Britain, although his visit did not lead to conquest.

54 BC – Julius Caesar’s second expedition again, the invasion did not lead to conquest.

Above: Julius Caesar’s invasion of Britain

27 BC – Augustus becomes the first Roman emperor.

AD 43 – The Roman Emperor Claudius orders four legions to conquer Britain

AD 43 (August) – The Romans capture the capital of the Catuvellauni tribe, Colchester, Essex.

AD 44 (June) – The Romans capture the hills forts of Dorset, including Maiden Castle.

AD 48 – The Romans have now conquered all territory between the Humber Estuary and the Severn Estuary. Parts that remain under British control include Dumnonii (Cornwall and Devon), Wales and the North West of England.

AD 47 – The Romans force their allies, the Iceni tribe of East Anglia, to relinquish all of their weapons. The Iceni resist but their revolt is short lived.

AD 49 – The Romans found a colony (or colonia) at Colchester for retired soldiers. This was to be the first civilian centre of Roman Britain and – for a time – the capital of the territory.

AD 51 – The leader of the exiled Catuvellauni tribe, Caratacus, is captured. He had led a protracted guerrilla war against the occupying Roman forces for years, but was eventually brought to battle by the Roman governor Publius Ostorius. Caratacus spent the remainder of his days in retirement in Italy.

AD 60 – The Romans attack the Druid stronghold of Anglesey. The campaign to occupy Wales was however cut short by the Iceni revolt in south east England.

AD 61 – After attempting to fully annexe East Anglia, Boudica leads a rebellion of the Iceni against the Romans. After burning down Colchester, London and St Albans, Boudica was eventually defeated at the Battle of Watling Street.

Above: Boudica (or Boudicea) leading the Iceni rebellion against the Romans.

AD 75 – Building of the palace at Fishbourne commences.

AD 80 – London has grown to the point where it now houses a forum, basilica, governor’s palace and even an amphitheatre.

Above: The remains of London’s Roman Basilica, which can still be seen today in a barber’s shop in Leadenhall Market!

AD 84 – The Romans engage the Caledonians at Mons Graupius, Scotland. Although the location of this battle is uncertain, it is thought that it took place somewhere in modern day Aberdeenshire.

AD 100 – Most of the 8,000 miles of Roman roads in Britain are completed, allowing troops and goods to travel easily across the country.

The new Roman emperor, Trajan, also orders a complete withdrawal from Scotland and the construction of a new frontier between Newcastle-on-Tyne and Carlisle.

AD 122 – To strengthen the border between Roman-occupied Britain and Scotland, Emperor Hadrian orders the construction of a wall. Interestingly, many of the early forts along Hadrian’s Wall face south into Brigantian territory, showing the ongoing threat posed by recently subverted tribes of northern England.

Above: Hadrian’s Wall today. ©VisitBritain

AD 139 – 140 – The Antonine Wall in Scotland is built, dramatically shifting the northern border of Roman occupied Britain. This new wall is built of earth and timber, and is strengthened by a series of forts along its length.

AD 150 – Villas start appearing across the British countryside. Compared to their southern counterparts they are fairly modest however, with fewer than ten having mosaic floors.

AD 155 – St Albans in Hertfordshire, one of the largest towns in Roman Britain, is destroyed by fire.

AD 163 – The order is given to abandon the Antonine Wall and for Roman troops to withdraw back to Hadrian’s Wall. Although the reasons for this are unclear, it is thought that an uprising by the Brigantes had forced the retreat.

AD 182 – The Brigantes, along with other tribes of southern Scotland and northern England, start revolting against the Romans. Fighting continued for years along Hadrian’s Wall, with towns further south building preventative defences should the rioting spread.

AD 197 – After a period of in-fighting within Rome, a series of military commissioners arrive in Britain looking to purge any supporters of the recently ousted usurper, Decimus Clodius. They also look at rebuilding Hadrian’s Wall after over 15 years of clashes with the northern tribes.

AD 209 – After years of protracted conflict with the northern tribes, the Romans lead an army to Hadrian’s Wall border to engage the Caledonians. With the Romans aiming to meet the rebels in pitched battle, the Caledonians instead opt for guerrilla warfare. This forces peace treaties to be signed between the belligerents.

AD 211 – Britain is divided up into two separate provinces the south was to be called “Britannia Superior” (superior being in reference to the fact that it was closer to Rome), with the north being named “Britannia Inferior”. London was the new capital of the south, with York the capital of the north.

AD 250 onwards – New threats to Roman Britannia emerge as the Picts from Scotland, as well as the Angles, Saxon and Jutes from Germany and Scandinavia, start threatening Roman lands.

AD 255 – With the increasing threat from seaborne Germanic tribes, London’s city wall is completed with the final stretch along the north bank of the Thames.

Above: A portion of London’s Roman city wall seen by the Tower of London.

AD 259 – Britain, Gaul and Spain split away from the Roman Empire, creating the so-called ‘Gallic Empire’.

AD 274 – The Gallic Empire is re-absorbed into the main Roman Empire.

AD 287 – The admiral of the Roman Channel fleet, Carausius, declares himself Emperor of Britain and Northern Gaul and starts minting his own coins.

AD 293 – Carausius is assassinated by his treasurer, Allectus, who quickly starts work on his palace in London to solidify his claim to authority. He also starts building the famous ‘Saxon Shore Forts’ along the coasts of Britain, both to strengthen defenses against the Germanic tribes to the east but also to prevent Rome from sending a fleet to recover Britain for the empire.

AD 296 – The Roman Empire recaptures Britannia and Allectus is killed in battle near Silchester in Hampshire. Britain is then split up into four provinces Maxima Caesariensis (northern England up to Hadrian’s Wall), Britannia Prima (the south of England), Flavia Caesariensis (the Midlands and East Anglia) and Britannia Secunda (Wales).

AD 314 – Christianity becomes legal in the Roman Empire.

AD 343 – Probably in response to a military emergency (although no-one is quite sure what this emergency was in relation to), Emperor Constans makes a visit to Britain.

AD 367 – Barbarians from Scotland, Ireland and Germany co-ordinate their attacks and launch raids on Roman Britain. Many towns are plundered throughout the province, and Britain falls into a state of anarchy.

AD 369 – A large force from Rome, led by military commander Theodosius, arrives in Britain and drives back the Barbarians.

AD 396 – Large scale Barbarian attacks on Britain start up again. Large naval engagements are ordered against the invaders, with reinforcements arriving from other areas of the empire.

AD 399 – Peace is fully restored throughout Roman Britannia.

AD 401 – A large amount of troops are withdrawn from Britain to assist with the war again Alaric I, who is attempting to sack Rome.

AD 406 – For the past five years, Roman Britannia has suffered frequent breaches of its borders by Barbarian forces. With the Roman Empire focused on the more serious threats to Italy, reinforcements have stopped and Britain is left to its own devices.

AD 407 – The remaining Roman garrisons in Britain proclaim one of their generals, Constantine III, Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Constantine quickly pulls together a force and crosses the English Channel to invade Gaul, leaving Britain with only a skeleton force to defend itself.

AD 409 – After throwing off their allegiance to Constantine III in 408, the local British populace expel the final remnants of Roman authority in 409.

AD 410 – With increased incursions from the Saxons, Scots, Picts and Angles, Britain turns to the Roman emperor Honorius for help. He writes back telling them to ‘look to their own defenses’ and refuses to send any help. This letter marked the end of Roman Britain.


List of Roman Emperors

  • Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus
  • Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus
  • Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Servius Sulpicius Galba
  • Marcus Salvius Otho
  • Aulus Vitellius Germanicus
  • Titus Flavius Vespasianus
  • Titus Flavius Vespasianus
  • Titus Flavius Domitianus
  • Marcus Cocceius Nerva
  • Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus
  • Publius Aelius Hadrianus
  • Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (Antoninus Pius)
  • Lucius Aurelius Verus
  • Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus
  • Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus
  • Publius Helvius Pertinax
  • Marcus Didius Severus Julianus
  • Lucius Septimius Severus
  • Caracalla
  • Publius Septimius Geta
  • Marcus Opellius Macrinus
  • Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus
  • Elagabalus
  • Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander
  • Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus (Maximinus I)
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (Gordian I)
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (Gordian II)
  • Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus
  • Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (Gordian III)
  • Marcus Julius Philippus (Philip the Arab)
  • Gaius Messius Quintus Decius
  • Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus
  • Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus
  • Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus
  • Publius Licinius Valerianus
  • Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus
  • Marcus Aurelius Claudius
  • Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus
  • Lucius Domitius Aurelianus
  • Marcus Claudius Tacitus
  • Marcus Annius Florianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Probus
  • Marcus Aurelius Carus
  • Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Carinus
  • Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius
  • Flavius Valerius Constantius (Constantius Chlorus)
  • Galerius Maximianus
  • Flavius Valerius Severus
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (Constantine I or Emperor Constantine)
  • Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius
  • Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus (Maximinus II)
  • Valerius Licinianus Licinius
  • Flavius Claudius Constantinus (Constantine II)
  • Flavius Iulius Constantius (Constantius II)
  • Flavius Julius Constans
  • Flavius Claudius Iulianus (Julian the Apostate)
  • Flavius Iovianus (Jovian)
  • Flavius Valentinianus
  • Flavius Julius Valens
  • Flavius Gratianus
  • Flavius Valentinianus (Valentinian II)
  • Theodosius I
  • Flavius Arcadius
  • Flavius Honorius
  • Flavius Theodosius (Theodosius II)
  • Flavius Constantius (Constantius III)
  • Joannes
  • Flavius Placidius Valentinianus (Valentinian III)
  • Flavius Marcianus
  • Flavius Petronius Maximus
  • Eparchius Avitus
  • Flavius Iulius Valerius Maiorianus
  • Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius
  • Procopius Anthemius
  • Anicius Olybrius
  • Glycerius
  • Julius Nepos
  • Romulus Augustus
  • Flavius Valerius Leo (Leo I the Thracian)
  • Flavius Leo Junior (Leo II)
  • Flavius Zeno
  • Flavius Basiliscus
  • Flavius Anastasius
  • Flavius Iustinus (Justin I)
  • Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus (Justinian I)
  • Flavius Iustinus (Junior) Augustus (Justin II)

Even though Romulus Augustus is considered to have been the last Roman emperor, he was actually an usurper, and is not included in the list. The decline of the Roman empire occurred due to increasingly strong enemies and treachery within the empire. However, no one can deny them the various achievements that marked the era, like their art, literature and architecture.


As part of their KS2 history curriculum, children are taught more about local and global histories to help give them a greater awareness of how Britain's past is connected to the wider world. One element of this is learning about the timeline of Ancient Rome, the Roman Empire and the impact it had on Britain, from the series of invasions the Roman Army made to the establishment of Roman influences and culture in Britain.


A Succinct Timeline of Roman Emperors—400 Years of Power Condensed - History


Emperor Augustus
Source: The University of Texas

For the first 500 years of Ancient Rome, the Roman government was a republic where no single person held ultimate power. However, for the next 500 years, Rome became an empire ruled by an emperor. Although many of the republican government offices were still around (i.e. the senators) to help run the government, the emperor was the supreme leader and was even sometimes thought of as a god.

Who was the first Roman Emperor?

The first Emperor of Rome was Caesar Augustus. He actually had a lot of names including Octavius, but was called Augustus once he became emperor. He was the adopted heir of Julius Caesar.

At first you may think that the Roman republic moving to an empire led by an Emperor was a bad thing. In some cases, this was absolutely true. However, in other cases the Emperor was a good, strong leader who brought peace and prosperity to Rome. Here are a few of the better emperors of Rome:


Emperor Marcus Aurelius
Photo by Ducksters
  • Caesar Augustus - The first Emperor, Augustus, set a good example for future leaders. After years of civil war in Rome, his rule was a time of peace called the Pax Romana (Roman peace). He established a standing Roman army, a network of roads, and rebuilt much of the city of Rome.
  • Claudius - Claudius conquered several new areas for Rome and started the conquest of Britain. He also built many roads, canals, and aqueducts.
  • Trajan - Trajan is considered by many historians to be the greatest of Rome's Emperors. He ruled for 19 years. During that time, he conquered many lands increasing the wealth and size of the empire. He also was an ambitious builder, constructing many lasting buildings throughout Rome.
  • Marcus Aurelius - Aurelius is called the Philosopher-King. Not only was he Emperor of Rome, but he is also considered one of history's foremost stoic philosophers. Aurelius was the last of the "Five Good Emperors".
  • Diocletian - He was perhaps both a good and bad emperor. With the Roman Empire growing too large to manage from Rome, Diocletian split the Roman Empire into two sections the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire. This enabled the huge Empire to be ruled more easily and to defend its borders. However, he also was one of the worst emperors when it came to human rights, persecuting and killing many people, especially Christians, because of their religion.

Rome also had its share of crazy emperors. A few of them include Nero (who is often blamed for burning Rome), Caligula, Commodus, and Domitian.

Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great ruled over the Eastern Roman Empire. He was the first Emperor to convert to Christianity and started the Roman conversion to Christianity. He also changed the city of Byzantium to Constantinople, which would be capital of the Eastern Roman Empire for over 1000 years.

End of the Roman Empire

The two halves of the Roman Empire ended at different times. The Western Roman Empire ended in 476 AD when the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, was defeated by the German, Odoacer. The Eastern Roman Empire ended with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.


Rule of Rome Timeline (230 BCE-400 CE)

Amoraim, or Mishna scholars, flourish. The Amoraim's commentary, along with the Mishna, comprises the Talmud.

Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights, including permission to visit Jerusalem.

  • 3800 B.CE - 2001 BCE - The Dawn of “History”
  • 2000 B.C.E. - 587 BCE - Context of Ancient Israelite Religion
  • 538 BCE - 70 CE - Judaism After the Babylonian Exile
  • 230 BCE-400 CE - Rule of Rome
  • 70 - 500 - Rabbinic Jewish Period of Talmud Development
  • 325 - 590 - Consolidation & Dominance of Classical Christianity
  • 600 - 1500 - “Medieval” Period in the West
  • 570 - 1258 - Reception & Classical Development of Muhammad's Islamic Message
  • 1095-1258 - Crusades
  • 1258-1500 - Further Transitions and Rebuilding of Political Islam
  • 1291-1516 - Mamluk Rule
  • 1517-1569 - Reformation and Post-Reformation Christian Period
  • 1500-1920 - Dominance of Ottoman Muslim Empire in Turkey
  • 1700-1917 - Jewish Modern and Contemporary Periods
  • 1914-1918 - Islamic Unrest and Realignment in the Middle East
  • 1918-1947 - British Rule in Palestine
  • 1947-Present - Modern Israel & the Diaspora
    - 4500 B.C.E.-Present

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