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New scientific studies are revealing how advanced Neanderthals really were before being exposed to modern humans and their superior hunting crafts. More than 16,000 butchered rabbit and hare bones recovered from a 70,000 year-old layer of France’s Pié Lombard rock shelter site have been examined by Maxime Pelletier and his team of scientists at the University of Oulu in Finland. According to a report in Cosmos Magazine Dr. Pelletier said the bones represent at least 225 individual animals and that they were discovered in the same layer as “ Mousterian stone tools”.
- Research Confirms that Neanderthal DNA Makes Up About 20% of the Modern Human Genome
- The New Paleo? The Staples of Neanderthal Diets Unlocked by Looking at the Gunk in Their Teeth
- New Studies Clash with Previous Analyses On the Life and Fate of Neanderthals
Rabbit bones were recovered from the Neanderthal site. (pxhere/ )
Until this new study it was generally thought that Neanderthals greatly hunted larger and slower-moving animals and that their diets were only supplemented with smaller game animals, but the bones from Pié Lombard rock shelter were found to have cut marks caused by the Mousterian tools and they also showed signs of having been roasted. Furthermore, most of the long limb bones had be stalled and stripped of marrow which told the researchers that the animals had “not” been taken to the shelter by other predators.
Dr. Pelletier’s team also noted that the bones of rabbit paws and tails were missing which they think indicates that the animal’s pelts may have been removed with feet and tail intact, and that it is doubtful Neanderthals ate the animal meat and left the fur unexploited.
130,000 Year-Old Neanderthal’s Symbols And Jewelry
Knowing Neanderthals actively hunted rabbits 70,000 years ago, let’s now put this in context, because this discovery is part of an ever-increasing chain of emerging links informing us about how this ancient species interacted with the natural world of animals and plants.
In August, Dr. Stewart Finlayson, director of natural history at the Gibraltar National Museum, demonstrated just how sophisticated Neanderthals were in an analysis of eagle bones found at sites across Europe and Asia. According to Science Mag , data gathered from bird bones found at 154 Neanderthal sites dating to as early as “130,000 years ago” showed that before they made contact with Homo sapiens , Neanderthals across Eurasia were hunting golden eagles and using parts of their talons as items of jewelry or symbolic artifacts.
Possible Neanderthal jewelry from white-tailed eagle claw. (© 2015 Radovčić et al / CC BY-SA 4.0 )
Anyone who has ever been fishing, shooting, or bow hunting knows how many hours are spent with no action whatsoever and even when an animal or fish appears the chances of taking it home are slim, and if it weren’t for those sandwiches and chocolate most modern hunters would starve. Now, imagine tackling these beasts with handmade wooden, bone, and stone tools ; where would you even begin? Well the answer to this question might have been answered in a new paper published yesterday and it is nothing you might have guessed - it’s sticky old tar!
Van Wingerden’s Tarry Discovery
According to an article published today in Technology Works , in 2016 amateur collector Willy van Wingerden was exploring the Zandmotor, an artificial beach in the Netherlands, and picked up a sharp edged flake of flint which was partly covered in a black tar. Mr. van Wingerden suspected the tar had been added as a secure handhold so that the flake’s sharp edge could be used as a scraper or blade.
Marcel Niekus, is an independent archaeologist in the Netherlands and he radiocarbon dated the tar to about 50,000 years old, long before the arrival of modern humans, and what this suggests is that Neanderthals could predict future requirements and accomplish complex, multistep tasks, over several days with significant planning.
Stone flint tools used by Neanderthals. (Sergkarman / CC BY-SA 4.0 )
Co-author, Geeske Langejans, an archaeologist at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, said in the paper that the tar might have been an “essential element of Stone Age tool kits” and attempting to do as the Neanderthals did, the researchers caked birch bark in clay and fired it at 572°F–752°F (300°C–400°C) for hours producing thick black tar from the resin soaked bark. Then, the chemical composition of the impurities in the scientist tar compared to the ancient tar which confirmed that Neanderthals had indeed applied a similar procedure.
Neanderthal Alchemists Quest The Elements
Essentially, this new paper is evidence of a very ancient kind of alchemy, the primeval forerunner of chemistry focused on the transmutation of matter, birch bark into tar, for example. While the team of lab scientists had the luxury of ’controls’, including glass beakers with constant thicknesses, temperature dials, and heat resistant gloves, imagine doing all this outdoors with stone bowls on stick-fires! This beckons the questions: how many millennia before 70,000 BC were spent perfecting the art of tar production and how many thousands of knuckles must have been burned during the Neanderthal alchemists experimentations?
Neanderthals made tar from birch bark. (Jorre / CC BY-SA 3.0 )
Speaking of the tar coated flint flake Dr. Langejans thinks it’s an “ugly little piece” and points to it not having been retouched or shaped suggesting adhesives were used “on a regular basis”. However, not everyone agrees with this idea, for example, Paola Villa, an archaeologist at University of Colorado in Boulder told Science Mag argues that a handful of tools from just three sites is too slim a sample set to suggest that Neanderthals used birch bark tar “routinely”.
Accepting this argument, the team of scientists hope that further tarry artifacts will be dredged up from the North Sea that might prove Neanderthal groups produced tar to assist hunting, routinely.
70,000-year-old Neanderthal discovery shows they likely 'buried their dead with flowers'
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A shocking new study suggests that Neanderthals may have buried their dead with flowers.
The research looks at an "articulated" (all the bones in proper order) Neanderthal skeleton that was recently unearthed in Iraqi Kurdistan, the first such skeleton found in more than 20 years. Known as Shanidar Z, the Neanderthal was likely "deliberately buried," according to experts. Clumps of ancient pollen were also found, suggesting that flowers were also a part of the burial ritual.
"So much research on how Neanderthals treated their dead has to involve returning to finds from sixty or even a hundred years ago, when archaeological techniques were more limited, and that only ever gets you so far," said the study's lead author, Emma Pomeroy, in a statement.
The Neanderthal skull, flattened by thousands of years of sediment and rock fall, in situ in Shanidar Cave, Iraqi Kurdistan. (Credit: Graeme Barker)
"To have primary evidence of such quality from this famous Neanderthal site will allow us to use modern technologies to explore everything from ancient DNA to long-held questions about Neanderthal ways of death, and whether they were similar to our own," Pomeroy added.
New analysis shows that Shanidar Z is believed to be more than 70,000-years-old and was likely a middle- or elderly-aged adult when he died.
The researchers started exploring the Shanidar Cave where the skeleton was found in 2014 but had to postpone digging for a year because of its close proximity to Islamic State forces.
The bones of the Neanderthal’s left arm and ribs in situ in Shanidar Cave. (Credit: SWNS)
After the dig was restarted, a rib, part of a spine and a clenched right hand were discovered. A crushed skull and the left hand were subsequently found years later.
"The new excavation suggests that some of these bodies were laid in a channel in the cave floor created by water, which had then been intentionally dug to make it deeper," Cambridge's McDonald Institute of Archaeology professor Graeme Barker added in the statement. "There is strong early evidence that Shanidar Z was deliberately buried."
The cave was first discovered in the 1950s by archaeologist Ralph Solecki (who died in 2019), who unearthed 10 skeletons of Neanderthal men, women and children, including one that had clumps of pollen surrounding it. However, for nearly 70 years, the idea that Neanderthals buried their dead with flowers was highly controversial, but the new findings add credence to Solecki's idea.
Scholars have argued for years about whether Neanderthals buried their dead with mortuary rituals much as our species does, part of the larger debate over their levels of cognitive sophistication.
“What is key here is the intentionality behind the burial. You might bury a body for purely practical reasons, in order to avoid attracting dangerous scavengers and/or to reduce the smell. But when this goes beyond practical elements it is important because that indicates more complex, symbolic and abstract thinking, compassion and care for the dead, and perhaps feelings of mourning and loss,” Pomeroy said.
Shanidar Z appears to have been deliberately placed in an intentionally dug depression cut into the subsoil and part of a cluster of four individuals.
“Whether the Neanderthal group of dead placed around 70,000 years ago in the cave were a few years, a few decades or centuries - or even millennia - apart, it seems clear that Shanidar was a special place, with bodies being placed just in one part of a large cave,” said University of Cambridge archeologist and study co-author Graeme Barker.
Neanderthals - more robustly built than Homo sapiens and with larger brows - inhabited Eurasia from the Atlantic coast to the Ural Mountains from about 400,000 years ago until a bit after 40,000 years ago, disappearing after our species established itself in the region.
The two species interbred, with modern non-African human populations bearing residual Neanderthal DNA.
Shanidar Z was found to be reclining on his or her back, with the left arm tucked under the head and the right arm bent and sticking out to the side.
The comparisons also allowed the researchers to look for genetic flow between Neanderthals and our own species. Surprisingly, even though these Neanderthals were around when we had already moved into Europe, there were “no indications of recent gene flow from early modern humans to late Neanderthals,” the authors write. The data also suggested that Neanderthal gene flow into humans came from a group of Neanderthals that branched off from these individuals' ancestral group between 70,000 and 150,000 years ago..
“It’s an amazing paper,” said Anders Eriksson in a phone call with Ars. He studies ancient genomes at King's College London, and wasn't involved in this work. “This really opens up the possibility of starting to do proper population genetics on Neanderthals.” He pointed to the researchers’ success at extracting and decontaminating the samples as particularly exciting: “I can see this opening up avenues for getting a lot more ancient DNA.”
The new information about Neanderthal populations and when they mixed with modern humans fits into our growing picture of the evidence, Eriksson said. The new data “fills in a lot of detail where we only really had a couple of data points,” he enthused. By comparing each new genome to the data we already have, we can slowly start to color in the sketch of ancient Neanderthal history—“so you can really start putting together a picture of the population that you had in Europe.”
Note: this story was updated to correct the details of Neanderthal gene flow into humans.
Illustration: Mountain People
In particular, researchers have focused on the Neanderthals, a species very close in physique and brain size to modern humans. They once dominated Europe, but disappeared after modern humans arrived after emerging from our African homeland about 70,000 years ago. The question is: why?
“A major problem in understanding what happened when modern humans appeared in Europe has concerned the dates for our arrival,” Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London said. “It was once thought we appeared in Europe about 40,000 years ago and that we coexisted with Neanderthals for thousands of years after that. They may have hung on in pockets — including caves in Gibraltar — until 28,000 years ago, it was believed.”
In other words, there was a long, gradual takeover by modern humans — an idea that is likely to be demolished at this week’s conference, Stringer added.
Results from the five-year research program, RESET (Response of humans to abrupt environmental transitions), will show that humans arrived much earlier than previously estimated and that Neanderthals expired even more quickly. Careful dating of finds at sites across Europe suggests that Homo sapiens reached Europe 45,000 years ago. Five thousand years later, Neanderthals had disappeared. This latter finding is particularly striking.
“All previous research on Neanderthal sites, which have suggested that they were more recent than 40,000 years old — and there have been a lot of them — appear to be wrong,” Stringer added. “That is a key finding that will be discussed at the conference.”
Using radiocarbon technology to date remains that are 40,000 years old has always been tricky. Radioactive carbon decays relatively quickly and after 40,000 years there will only be a tiny amount left in a sample to measure. The tiniest piece of contaminant can then ruin dating efforts.
However, scientists working for the RESET program have set out to get round these problems. At Oxford University, scientists led by Tom Higham have developed new purification methods to prevent contamination and have been able to make much more precise radiocarbon dating for this period.
In addition, scientists have discovered that there was a devastating eruption of the Campi Flegrei volcano west of Naples 39,000 years ago. Recent studies have shown this eruption was much more destructive than previously recognized.
More than 250km3 of ash were blasted into the atmosphere and covered a vast area of eastern Europe and western Asia. This layer gives scientists a precise means of dating for this period and, combined with the new radiocarbon dating, shows there are no Neanderthal sites anywhere in Europe that are less than 39,000 years ago, a date 10,000 years older than previous estimates. It is a significant shift in our thinking about our nearest evolutionary cousins.
In addition, some researchers point out that Campi Flegrei was the biggest volcanic eruption in Europe for more than 200,000 years and would have had a catastrophic impact. Vast plumes of ash would have blotted out the sun for months, or possibly years, and caused temperatures to plummet. Sulphur dioxide, fluorine and chlorine emissions would have generated intense falls of acid rain. Neanderthals may simply have shivered and choked to death.
The Campi Flegrei eruption not only gives us a precise date for the Neanderthals’ disappearance, it may provide us with the cause of their extinction as well, though Stringer sounds a note of caution.
“Some researchers believe there is a link between the eruption and the Neanderthals’ disappearance, but I doubt it. From the new work carried out by RESET scientists, it looks as if the Neanderthals had already vanished. A few may still have been hanging around, of course, and Campi Flegrei may have delivered the coup de grace. But it would be wrong to think the eruption was the main cause of the Neanderthals’ demise,” he said.
In that case, what did do for the Neanderthals? Given the speed with which they disappeared from the face of the planet after modern humans arrived in Europe, it is probable that Homo sapiens played a critical role in their demise. That does not mean we chased them down and killed them — an unlikely scenario given their more muscular physiques. However, we may have been more successful at competing for resources, as several recent pieces of research have suggested.
Eiluned Pearce of Oxford University recently compared the skulls of 32 Homo sapiens and 13 Neanderthals and found that the latter had eye sockets that were significantly larger. These larger eyes were an adaptation to the long, dark nights of Europe, she concluded, and would have required much larger visual processing areas in the skulls of Neanderthals.
By contrast, modern humans, from sunny Africa, had no need for this adaptation and instead they evolved frontal lobes, which are associated with high-level processing.
“More of the Neanderthal brain appears to have been dedicated to vision and body control, leaving less brain to deal with other functions like social networking,” Pearce told BBC News.
This point is stressed by Stringer.
“Neanderthal brains were as big as modern humans’, but the former had bigger bodies — they were rounder and had more muscle. More of their brain cells would have been needed to control these larger bodies, on top of the added bits of cortex needed for their enhanced vision. That means they had less brain power available to them compared with modern humans,” he said.
Thus our ancestors possessed a fair bit of enhanced cerebral prowess, even though their brains were no bigger than Neanderthals’. How they used that extra brainpower is a little trickier to assess, though most scientists believe it maintained complex, extended social networks. Developing an ability to speak complex language would have been a direct outcome, for example.
Having extended networks of clans would have been a considerable advantage in Europe, which was then descending into another ice age. When times got hard for one group, help could be sought from another. Neanderthals would have less backup.
This point is supported by studies of the flints used for Neanderthal weapons. These are rarely found more than 48km from their source. By contrast, modern humans were setting up commercial operations that saw implements being transported more than 322km. Artefacts and figurines were being shared over wider and wider areas.
Cultural life become more increasingly important for humans. Research by Tanya Smith of Harvard University recently revealed that modern human childhoods became longer than those of Neanderthals. By studying the teeth of Neanderthal children, she found they grew much more quickly than modern human children. The growth of teeth is linked to overall development and shows Neanderthals must have had much shorter childhoods and a much reduced opportunity to learn from their parents and clan members.
“We moved from a primitive ‘live fast and die young’ strategy to a ‘live slow and grow old’ strategy and that has helped make humans one of the most successful organisms on the planet,” Smith said.
Our approach demonstrates for the first time that between MIS 5a and MIS 4 the ecological niche of culturally cohesive Neanderthal populations in Western Europe contracted and shifted. Some of these populations elaborated highly adaptive cultural innovations in order to continue exploiting habitual territories whose environmental characteristics were affected by pronounced climate change. Continually exploiting the same territories across periods of dramatic environmental change requires cultural flexibility as previous cultural adaptations may no longer be effective in the face of new ecological conditions. Such flexibility is manifested in areas south of the Loire River Valley by the appearance of the Quina lithic production system during MIS 4. When systematically integrated into archaeological research, the approach employed here permits archaeologists to approach questions from a different angle and to make better-informed inferences with respect to cultural adaptation and cultural evolution. Our approach can play a key role in investigations of older periods in efforts to determine when humans began to employ cultural innovation as a strategy to respond to climatic challenges.
How have we changed since our species first appeared?
Click to enlarge image Toggle Caption
We have undergone change since our species first evolved. Some changes were universal whereas others were more regional in effect. The changes apparent in worldwide populations include a decrease in both overall body size and brain size as well as a reduction in jaw and tooth proportions. Regional populations have also evolved different physical and genetic characteristics in response to varying climates and lifestyles.
We are now generally shorter, lighter and smaller boned than our ancestors were 100,000 years ago. The decrease has been gradual but has been most noticeable in the last 10,000 years. However, there has been some slight reversal to this trend in the last few centuries as the average height has started to increase.
The factors that affect body size are complex. They involve interactions between genetics, environment and lifestyle practices such as diet and technology.
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Average height of Homo sapiens over the last 40,000 years
This information is based on the average heights of European males because better statistics exist for this population, but the general trend is worldwide.
- 40,000 years ago: European males – 183 cm (6 feet). Cro-Magnon people were the first modern humans (Homo sapiens) to inhabit Europe. These hunter-gatherers lived a physically demanding lifestyle that would have required greater body strength than the average human today. Their recent African ancestry may have also affected their height, as tall, long-limbed builds are useful adaptations to the warmer African climate.
- 10,000 years ago: European males – 162.5cm (5 ft 4 inches). A dramatic reduction in the size of humans occurred at this time. Many scientists think that this reduction was influenced by global climatic change and the adoption of agriculture. Agricultural communities suffered from malnutrition as a result of failed crops and a more restricted diet. Furthermore, a close association with domestic livestock introduced new diseases into human populations.
- 600 years ago: European males – 165 cm (5 ft 5 inches). Poor diet and health were the main causes for the shorter stature at this time.
- Today: European males – 175 cm (5ft 9 inches). There has been an increase in height over the last few hundred years. In part, this increase is due to improved diet and health care. There may also be a genetic link as industrial expansion and urbanisation has brought together genetically isolated people and reduced the impacts of inbreeding due to a greater mixing of populations and their genes.
For the last two million years there has been a trend toward a bigger brain that has affected many species in our family tree. This trend has seen a reversal in our own species and our brains are now the smallest they have been at any time in the past 100,000 years. Most of this decrease occurred in the last 6,000 years. In part, this is related to a decrease in body size that also occurred during this period, however, other factors are probably also involved.
Our brains now average about 100-150 cubic centimetres less than when our species first appeared.
- 100,000 years ago: average brain size: 1500cc
- 12,000 years ago: average brain size: 1450cc
- Today: average brain size: 1350cc
Smaller teeth and jaws
The trend toward smaller jaws and teeth that was seen in our ancestors has continued in our own species. In fact, some people today do not have enough space in their jaws to fit their 3rd molars or wisdom teeth.
Overall, these changes have occurred in proportion with a decrease in body size. However, over the last 10,000 years dietary changes and technology have played a major role.
A decrease in size has occurred in the jaws and teeth of Homo sapiens over the last 30,000 years. However, there has been a very slight reversal in this trend in the last century as teeth have increased in size. This is partly related to the introduction of fluoride, which thickens dental enamel, so making teeth a little larger.
Developing physical diversity: All one species but looking different
Humans today show an enormous diversity in appearance, however this diversity was not apparent in early Homo sapiens. Early members of our species lived in Africa and had evolved physical characteristics that were similar to each other in order to survive in that climate. When humans started to spread to different parts of the world about 100,000 years ago, they encountered a variety of different climatic conditions and evolved new physical adaptations more suitable to those new climates.
Recent DNA studies (since 2007) confirm that genetic traits have changed or adapted to new environments during this time. In fact, the rate of change of DNA, and thus the rate of evolution, has accelerated in the last 40,000 years. Areas of the human genome still seem to be undergoing selection for things such as disease and skin colour.
It also appears that some physical features have been inherited from interbreeding with other ancient human species. An international team, led from CL, Aix-Marseille University and the Open University, found the the gene TBX15 was linked with genes found in ancient Denisovans, providing a clue to the origin of the gene in our species. This gene helps determine lip shape via body fat distribution and may have been useful to Denisovans in the cold climates of their Central Asian homelands.
Physical characteristics such as skin and eye colour, hair type and colour and body shape are determined by genetics, but can also be influenced by the environment. Over long periods of time, the environment will act on the genes to develop particular characteristics within a population.
All one species – how climate affects physical characteristics
- Body builds: Short, stocky builds are typical of humans living in cold climates. The reduced surface area compared to weight allows more body heat to be retained. A thin, long-limbed build is typical of humans in hot regions. The larger skin surface compared to weight allows for body heat to be lost more easily.
- Skin colour: Lighter skin allows the penetration of the sun’s UV rays. These rays help the body to synthesise vitamin D. Darker skin protects the body from absorbing too many UV rays. This can cause cancer or destroy important vitamins and minerals.
- Noses: People living in hot, humid climates tend to have broad, flat noses that allow inhaled air to be moistened and the moisture in exhaled air to be retained. People living in hot, dry climates typically have narrowed, projecting noses. This type of nose reduces the amount of water that is lost from the lungs during breathing. People living in cold, dry climates generally have smaller, longer and narrower noses. This type of nose moistens and warms the incoming air.
- Hair: Tight, curly hair keeps the hair off the neck and exposes more areas of the scalp than straight hair. This helps with cooling and evaporation of sweat. Straight hair is common in people living in colder climates as it keeps the neck and head warm. Straight hair also allows cold moisture to run off the scalp more easily.
- Face shape: Inuits have adapted to extreme cold by retaining layers of fat on their faces for additional warmth. Populations in northern Asia and the Arctic tend to have broad, flat faces as these reduce the effects of frostbite.
- Mouth shape: Thick lips have a larger surface area to help evaporate moisture and cool the body. The larger surface also allows cooling by moistening of the lips.
- Eyes: The epicanthic fold common among Northern and Eastern Asian populations is an adaptation for protecting the eye from the hard driving snow typical in these regions, and also to reduce snow glare. Blue eyes are better adapted for vision in regions where there is reduced light, as they let in more light than darker coloured eyes.
- Additional: Australian Aboriginals of the Central Desert have an unusual physical adaptation to living in a climate where it can be freezing for short periods, such as during cold desert nights. They have evolved the ability to drop their bodies to low temperatures without triggering the usual reflex of shivering.
Bonfante B et al. ɺ GWAS in Latin Americans identifies novel face shape loci, implicating VPS13B and a Denisovan introgressed region in facial variation', Science Advances volume 7 (2021)
Neanderthal Alchemists Enhanced Weapons 70,000 Years-Ago - History
The contemplation of the human-machine collaboration and its potential in revolutionizing the field of architecture is highly anticipated, discussed, and sought out, yet the exact form and function of it is either in the form of scattered research or novels that fail to collaborate all the viable research lacking a balance between research and vision to inform the audience. This research connects Architecture and progress in the works of Yuval Noah Harari, to the added insight of future technologies, to speculate the change of humanity is based on Technology so far and study of human habitation and lifestyle as a major means of study yet it lacks to describe the form and function of human-machine architecture, as compared to, description of technology, capitalism, medicine, anthropology, sociology and many other fields which are agents to help define future architecture.
Architecture or built forms are a reflection of our activities as they are shaped by them. Deciding where we lead emergent technologies can indicate systemic abilities for goal setting and operational strategy concepts closely associated not only with the performative aspects of architectural interventions but also with the nature of the techniques and tools that produce them. These terms might imply an enhanced relationship between architecture, its inhabitants, and its environment a complex link between architecture, its production, and its tools or capacity of architecture to produce new conditions and grounds on which it could be engaged. This issue takes a closer look at artificial intelligence (AI) and human-machine collaboration in architecture.
Application of technology in the AEC industry is undergoing tremendous research but is not outreached as the other fields. One of the main reasons for growth in technology in every other field in comparison to the AEC industry is due to the lack of motivation or collaboration, this is mainly because the plausibility of growing architectural research in making a change is a foreign topic to most common people. Breakthroughs in machine learning and deep learning have produced computational tools capable of interpreting only structured data, bits, pixels, and vectors. These systems are capable of becoming incrementally more robust and autonomous over time as they gather more information reinforcing success and failure.
In other territories, disciplines, and frontiers, AI advances are met with both excitement and trepidation. Their application threatens one of two polemics: augmentation or obsolescence. The possibilities and ramifications for more creative, artistic, or even “human” disciplines—where outputs are not linear or pre-conceived but negotiated and synthesized—are more contested and unknown. The power and potential of such approaches lie in their lack of specificity. The contributions to this explore a spectrum of novel design explorations and exploitations that illustrates the divergence and convergence of human, machine, and mixed agencies at the intersection with adaptivity, adjustable autonomy, and architecture.
Human History has clearly linked itself, from past 70,000 years, by their activities, technologies and built forms. Thereby, allowing them to evolve themselves and the world around them while leaving behind clear traces of its transition from The Cognitive Revolution – The Agricultural Revolution – The Scientific Revolution. Yet the predictability of the next revolution is linked only by technology, while the activities and built forms are barely linked to a justifiable prediction.
COGNITIVE REVOLUTION / HUNTER GATHERERS
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
The cognitive revolution, about 70,000 years ago, offered homo sapiens the chance to spread all over the world. As every book says, the major breakthrough was the invention of “fire”. The fire enabled the sapiens to cook food and reduced the amount of energy the human body needed (both to digest food and to withstand cold).
This excess (saved) energy helped the brain to develop further. By then the human brain used more than 25% of body energy and grew drastically though the brain is just 2-3% of our total body weight, it consumes >20% of our body energy, even today. This larger brain led him more intelligence, imagination, and very important communication.
His communication skills brought in “language”. His imagination gave birth to thousands of stories, religions, and beliefs. All this combined, helped him to grow as a group (society), with a lot of interaction and collaboration between each other. We used this cognitive ability to withstand our dangers and survive better, while the other species were eliminated.
It was the resourcefulness of using the available technology “fire“, sewing, tool making, and many others and apply it to every possible scenario that came along while migrating that ensured the long-lived success of the Sapiens.
“Homo sapiens conquers the globe.
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
• For more than 2 million years, the earth was populated with a number of human species, not just one
• 70,000 years ago something began to change: Homo sapiens began migrating out of Africa as they spread out onto the Eurasia land mass, they drove the other human species (e.g. Homo neanderthalensis [Europe], Homo denisova [Asia/Siberia], and Homo soloensis [Java]) into extinction.
• When Homo sapiens first started to migrate to the Middle East 100,000 years ago, they were driven back by the Neanderthals
• 70,000 years ago, Homo sapiens migrated again into and across the Arabian peninsula into the Middle East.• 60,000 years ago reached the area of what is now Korea. 45,000 years ago, Homo sapiens crossed the open sea from Indonesia and landed in Australia.
• Indications that 70,000 years ago something special was happening to Homo sapiens which gave them new abilities.
• There were many species of humans living together at the same time.
• The need for migration leads to the extinction of the other human species.
• Homo sapiens eventually crossed paths with other human species.
• They further migrated to reach Australia after passing through Asia.
• Movement through such large landmasses was only possible through the use and invention of new technologies like fire, boats, tents, and clothes. Exemplifying the co-relation between technology and development/ evolution.
Hunter-gatherers made these handprints about 9,000 years ago in the ‘Hands Cave’, in Argentina. It looks as if these long-dead hands are reaching towards us from within the rock. This is one of the most moving relics of the ancient forager world – but nobody knows what it means.
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
• How did humans make the jump to the top of the food chain?
one skill that helped them do this was the domestication of fire
• We know that by 300,000 years ago, some species of humans including the Homo neanderthalensis were using fire on a daily basis, Source of light, Source of warmth, Source of weapons against dangerous animals, Method of hunting and Use fire to encircle and trap animals
• Most important aspect of fire was that it enabled humans to cook
• Many foods that humans cannot digests raw could now be eaten: wheat, rye, rice, and potatoes
• Was able to cross the ocean from Indonesia to Australia, i.e. had developed some kind of sailboat or raft.
• For hundreds of thousands of years up to about 70,000 years ago, all human species (Neanderthal, Sapiens, Denisova, Homo erectus) were all building pretty much the same stone knives, spear points, axes, and hammers without change.
• Lion man of the Hohlenstein Stadel 40,000 years ago oldest known animal-shaped sculpture in the world and one of the oldest known sculptures in general, lion head with the human body, shows that ability for Homo sapiens to imagine things that don’t really exist.
• T hey learned to make snowshoes and effective thermal clothing composed of layers of furs and skins, sewn together tightly with the help of needles. They developed new weapons and sophisticated hunting techniques that enabled them to track and kill mammoths and the other big game of the far north. As their thermal clothing and hunting techniques improved, Sapiens dared to venture deeper and deeper into the frozen regions. And as they moved north, their clothes, hunting strategies, and other survival skills continued to improve.
• The fire was the most significant tool Sapiens used to not only survive but migrate and dominate the whole world.
• The purposes of fire manifolded in many ways to overcome nature in its many forms, a feat which was impossible for any other organism.
• The invention of cooking opened the spectrum of consumable foods making the agricultural revolution possible.
• Boats and Sails were some of the migratory tools used to access remote places, which were earlier inaccessible to humans.
• Tools such as spheres, knives, and hammers gave Sapiens an additional advantage over bigger prey or disputing human species.
• Sculptures and Jewelry were also an expressive invention that came about from tool making.
• Sewing opened up the possibility of traveling to colder environments with snowshoes and clothing.
An ivory figurine of a ‘lion-man’ (or ‘lioness-woman’) from the Stadel Cave in Germany (c.32,000 years ago).
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
• Another very important invention that we begin to see in the archeological record about 40,000 to 50,000 years ago is the needle. This may not strike you as a particularly useful invention but it was one of the most influential inventions in the history of humankind. Before the needle, Homo sapiens and the Neanderthal had rudimentary clothes such as skins of bears or deer, but the needle enabled them to attach materials together, dress in layers, make tents and boots, and thus made it possible to successfully live in colder temperature environments which enabled them within 40,000 years to migrate onto all of the six land continents.
• In Ofnet Cave in Bavaria, archaeologists discovered the remains of thirty-eight foragers, mainly women, and children, who had been thrown into two burial pits.
• The appearance of the oil lamp used animal fat in a container to keep fire lit, enabled Homo sapiens to navigate dark caves as well as create a painting in dark caves.
• The cave paintings in southern France and Spain date to the time that the Homo sapiens arrived in Europe and began replacing the Neanderthals. So the oil lamp was a key to an artistic revolution.
• Humans can choose when and where to light a fire.
• The invention of sewing not only enabled clothes and transport but also the ability to reside anywhere by means of tents.
• Skins of bears or deer were sewn together to form a thick tent in colder habitations.
• Caves were also utilized as means of residence and promoted activities like painting in the caves.
• Oil lamps brought the cave alive at night for Sapiens to socialize.
• Caves also proved to be sites of burial serving as tombs for early humans.
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
About 12,000 years ago, humans reduced his efforts to move all over the places for food, instead started domesticated some plants and animals. Most of the crops/animals what we’re eating till now were domesticated during this period. Stable food at one place also led to a stable residence. Villages, towns to cities and kingdoms were formed.
“The Agricultural Revolution certainly enlarged the sum total of food at the disposal of humankind, but the extra food did not translate into a better diet or more leisure. Rather, it translated into population explosions and pampered elites. The average farmer worked harder than the average forager, and got a worse diet in return”
An average man was roughly 5’10” tall and the woman was 5’6” before the agricultural revolution. Then sooner, within 3-4 generations, the average heights dipped to 5’5” for male and 5’1” for female. Many types of research show that it was mainly because of his diet switch from more proteins to carbohydrates, combined with less physical movement.
Agricultural Revolution: the ability to keep more people alive under worse conditions.
Locations and dates of agricultural revolutions. The data is contentious, and the map is constantly being redrawn to incorporate the latest archaeological discoveries.
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
• Sapiens who lived 30,000 years ago probably had their own share of religious movements, artistic movements, and political struggles invested more and more time in controlling the lives and production of plants and animals
• today’s most popular theory: agricultural life was initiated in different parts of the world at different times independently.
•Evidence that the survival of hunters and gatherers depended on an intimate knowledge of animals they hunted and plants they gathered, so it is not true to think that humans became farmers because they discovered information about animals and plants that they didn’t know before.
•Agricultural life improved humans’ standard of living. Compared with the lives of most peasants, ancient hunter-gatherers enjoyed a freer life, had a better diet, worked fewer hours and spent their time doing more interesting and varied things, and because of their mobility and flexibility, among other factors, they were less in danger of starvation, disease, and human violence.
•who was responsible for the agricultural revolution?
the real culprits were a handful of plant species such as wheat, rye, and potatoes. These plants domesticated human beings for their survival rather than vice-versa.
•10,000 years ago, wheat was just one type of wild grass that grew in some small areas of the Middle East. Within just a view short millennia, you find wheat in almost every area of the world.
• These forfeited food surpluses fuelled politics, wars, art, and philosophy. They built palaces, forts, monuments, and temples. The extra they produced fed the tiny minority of elites – kings, government officials, soldiers, priests, artists, and thinkers. Wheat did it by manipulating Homo sapiens.
• The Agricultural revolution sprouted out sporadically and globally as a transition from the activities, technologies and built forms from the Cognitive Revolution.
• The settlement patterns and the domesticated lifeforms from the choices made by the Sapiens in the past have determined our staple consumption.
• The choice of an Agricultural life civilized the hunter-gatherers to be open to ideas of cooperation which is essential for building communities.
• The seemingly harmless inclusion of wheat into our diet forced us to evolve, can the coming revolution of human-machine collaboration change us as well?
• Though wheat grew scantily, in the beginning, its inclusion in our evolution made it thrive globally. If this is true for a plant what can embrace this technology do?
• The domino effect of such a simple inclusion created the basis for our current day to day life. It formed kingdoms and cities, what would the kingdoms and cities be like when embracing collaboration between human and machine.
A clay tablet with an administrative text from the city of Uruk, c.3400–3000 BC. ‘Kushim’ may be the generic title of an officeholder, or the name of a particular individual.
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
• The Natufians invented new tools such as stone scythes for harvesting wild wheat, and stone pestles and mortars to grind it.
• The only way to build Göbekli Tepe was for thousands of foragers belonging to different bands and tribes to cooperate over an extended period of time. Only a sophisticated religious or ideological system could sustain such efforts.
• Transportation, plowing, grinding and other tasks, hitherto performed by human sinew, were increasingly carried out by animals.
• In many New Guinean societies, the wealth of a person has traditionally been determined by the number of pigs he or she owns.
• Stories about ancestral spirits and tribal totems were strong enough to enable 500 people to trade seashells, celebrate the odd festival, and join forces to wipe out a Neanderthal band.
• Myths – opened opportunities for the creation of crowded cities and mighty empires, people invented stories about great gods, motherlands and joint stock companies to provide the needed social links.
• While human evolution was crawling at its usual snail’s pace, the human imagination was building astounding networks of mass cooperation, unlike any other ever seen on earth.
• In 221 BC the Qin dynasty united China, Taxes levied on 40 million Qin subjects paid for a standing army of hundreds of thousands of soldiers and a complex bureaucracy that employed more than 100,000 officials.
• The Babylonian king most famous today was Hammurabi. His fame is due primarily to the text that bears his name, the Code of Hammurabi. This was a collection of laws and judicial decisions whose aim was to present Hammurabi as a role model of a just king, serve as a basis for a more uniform legal system across the Babylonian Empire, and teach future generations what justice is and how a just king acts.
• Writing is a method for storing information through material signs. The Sumerian writing system did so by combining two types of signs, which were pressed in clay tablets.
• The Agricultural revolution would have never been a successful task if the technology did not support it.
• Religion was one of the inventions which helped in bringing people to collectively start a settlement.
• Capitalizing on the domesticated lifeforms also served in the favor of spreading and speeding up of the Agricultural revolution.
• As these domesticated life forms were the primary bringers of resources and locomotion they were naturally perceived as wealth. This further grew down to the system of money which exists for all trade today.
• Stories served as an extension of imagination required for trade and conquest.
• Myths further enhanced cooperation amongst millions of strangers and built communities.
• The imagination of using the existing resources into farms, settlements, kingdoms, and cities, has been the potential for growth.
• Taxes were an invention that kept the functioning system going and funded growth lawfully.
• Writing perhaps is the most important form of data preservation that ensured an accurate translation of knowledge.
The remains of a monumental structure from Göbekli Tepe. Bottom: One of the decorated stone pillars (about sixteen feet high).
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
• The word “domesticate” comes from the Latin word “Domus” which means house.
• Wheat was attacked by rabbits and locust swarms, so the farmers built fences and stood guard over the fields. Wheat was thirsty, so humans dug irrigation canals or lugged heavy buckets from the well to water it.
• In time, human violence was brought under control through the development of larger social frameworks – cities, kingdoms, and states. But it took thousands of years to build such huge and effective political structures.
• The Natufians were hunter-gatherers who subsisted on dozens of wild species, but they lived in permanent villages and devoted much of their time to the intensive gathering and processing of wild cereals. They built stone houses and granaries. They stored grain for times of need.
• In 1995 archaeologists began to excavate a site in south-east Turkey called Göbekli Tepe. They did, find monumental pillared structures decorated with spectacular engravings. Each stone pillar weighed up to seven tons and reached a height of sixteen feet.
• the best-known example is Stonehenge in Britain. Yet as they studied Göbekli Tepe, they discovered an amazing fact. Stonehenge dates to 2500 BC and was built by a developed agricultural society.
• They spent most of their days working a small field or orchard, and their domestic lives centered on a cramped structure of wood, stone or mud, measuring no more than a few dozen feet – the house.
• The food surpluses produced by peasants, coupled with new transportation technology, eventually enabled more and more people to cram together first into large villages, then into towns, and finally into cities, all of them joined together by new kingdoms and commercial networks.
• The house served as the primary point for shelter and self-restoration.
• Irrigation systems and water conduits were built to enable societies to form communities. This transpired into kingdoms and cities.
• The enablement of communities transpired into cities, kingdoms, and states, on the basis of governing systems.
• Storage systems further increased the success of a settlement by further increasing the resources needed to grow.
• Religious buildings were the founding dogma around which communities formed. Thereby invoking a chain of hierarchy needed to grow into larger settlements.
• Larger villages, towns, and cities were a product of successful trade, commerce, and networking, organized by a governing body.
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
Till the year 1500, human’s acquaintance to objective science was quite confined. Till the 15th century, no human had even dreamt of circumnavigating the earth, but this changed when Magellan successfully returned to Spain in 1522. Prior to the year 1500s, he just believed that the sky is only for the birds and angels. But he broke his own beliefs on 20 July 1969, by entering into the moon.
During the last five centuries, humans increasingly came to believe that they could increase their capabilities by investing in scientific research. This wasn’t just blind faith – it was repeatedly proven empirically by many historical technology milestones from engineering to medicine.
On the other extreme, he started pushing science and technology on war and nuclear bombs started making strides in biotechnology by modifying the genes of vegetables and animals, with no clear boundary of what is good and what is forbidden to do. He keeps trying to change things with mortality, by cloning and Artificial Intelligence.
The Scientific Revolution for its mitigation and inclusion of every development in all fields of activity, technology, and built form, has created a model which can harmoniously support and grow everyone into the next era.
Global Transport Database
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
• The Industrial Revolution gave humankind control of enormous sources of energy and raw materials.
• The energy resources available to humankind are actually increasing all the time and are likely to continue to do so.
• The human population has been growing exponentially for centuries, while humans are becoming increasingly free from the forces of nature, we are becoming increasingly subject to the forces of industry and government
• The industrial revolution opened the way to a long line of changes and experiments in social engineering, how humans live together in large groups
• Modern industry cares far less about the sun and the seasons and far more about uniform schedules that don’t change from one season to the next.
• In the following years, more and more institutions adopted Greenwich time as the official time.
• The rise of cities and kingdoms and the improvement in transport infrastructure brought about new opportunities for specialization. Densely populated cities provided full-time employment not just for professional shoemakers and doctors, but also for carpenters, priests, soldiers, and lawyers.
• The Scientific Revolution’s feedback loop. Science needs more than just research to make progress. It depends on the mutual reinforcement of science, politics, and economics. Political and economic institutions provide the resources without which scientific research is almost impossible. In return, scientific research provides new powers that are used, among other things, to obtain new resources, some of which are reinvested in research.
• There are very few scientific disciplines that did not begin their lives as servants to imperial growth and that do not owe a large proportion of their discoveries, collections, buildings, and scholarships to the generous help of army officers, navy captains, and imperial governors.
• The industrial revolution with its growth Institutionalised to give way to the resources needed to make the current world scenario possible.
• With the institutions seeking profitability are growing the available resources to be used for the future.
• The institutions that govern (government and industry) have a remarkable hold on progress and is almost unavoidable.
• But the institutionalization has made it possible for the population to socially carry out trade and commerce.
• The method adopted by institutions is global for anyone who wishes to participate and its workability is synchronous with everyone.
• The standardization of Greenwich time has made it possible for all institutions to be synchronous and prosperous globally. eg. Global Transport.
• Individual Professions would not have worked harmoniously on a global scale if shoemakers, doctors, carpenters, priests, soldiers, and lawyers could not do their part in a grand scheme of capitalism.
• The Scientific Revolution is by far the biggest contributor to Professions and Institution, as it gives the potential design and creates new future scenarios. Wherein a successful synergy between the systems is required to fuel research.
• Professions that may have seen to be separate from the Scientific Revolution are slowly immersing themselves, indicating the technology is the inevitable way forward.
Jesse Sullivan and Claudia Mitchell holding hands. The amazing thing about their bionic arms is that they are operated by thought.
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
• Robots and 3D printers are already replacing workers in manual jobs such as manufacturing shirts, and highly intelligent algorithms will do the same to white-collar occupations.
• Robots and computers have no consciousness because despite their myriad abilities they feel nothing and crave nothing. Throughout this process, the robot doesn’t experience anything. In contrast, a human being depleted of energy feels hunger and craves to stop this unpleasant sensation.
• Cyborg engineering combining organic and inorganic parts such as a human with bionic hands.
• In a sense, all of us are cyborgs today since our natural senses and functions are supplemented and improved by eyeglasses, pace-makers, synthetic teeth, plastic hips, or metal screws in our joints
• However, in the future, this process is likely to go much further. We are likely to have inorganic devices connected directly to our brains and our nervous systems, devices that will become inseparable from us and that will change our abilities, desires, personalities, and identities.
• the bionic ear over 300,000 people already have bionic ears (cochlear implants) [KOK-lee-er]
• 2008 experiment: Monkey in North Carolina controlled robot legs in Japan over the Internet
• Software is being created that evolves independently of the creator of the program
• Are non-organic, evolving viruses life?
it depends how you define life, but this is a new pathway for evolution to create new phenomena in our real world which affect us and which we can predict only with difficulty, and which is completely independent of the organic world and its limitations
• 2005 Blue Brain Project goal is to recreate a brain inside a computer.
• Watson will be intimately familiar not only with my entire genome and my day-to-day medical history but also with the genomes and medical histories of my parents, siblings, cousins, neighbors, and friends.
• Industry 4.0 is the product of the Scientific Revolution and its acceptance is setting trends and indicating more radical changes to the economy.
• A culmination of Robots and humans is giving way to a world of human-machine collaboration.
• Cyborg engineering being humans using non-organic tools enhance their abilities like bionic arms can enhance lost limbs.
• Further development of this in terms of human-machine collaboration enables one to control robots anywhere from the internet. There is no reason why our future limbs will need to be in the same room as our bodies.
• Direct Neural synapses are another technological paradigm that will not only change the way we use technology but will also change us.
• The possibility of Software evolving uncredited to its initial program is what makes Artificial Intelligence promising.
• Computer Viruses are an excellent example of Artificial Intelligence because unannounced to the user the software evolves and updates despite regular anti-virus attempts.
• Creating complete consciousness within a computer is what is being sought out, the worm project is one of the few successful projects that managed the recreate the brain of a certain worm in software.
• A consciousness with access to our information online will be able to create more efficient communal solutions.
Frank Gehry’s Incredible Louis Vuitton Foundation
Facebook’s headquarters near San Francisco.
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
• This liberated humankind from its dependence on the surrounding ecosystem, humans could now: lay down tens of thousands of kilometers of roads and railroad tracks, build new and giant cities.
• A crucial link in the spreading of time schedules was public transportation.
• The industrial revolution gave humankind control of enormous sources of energy and raw materials.
• States are increasingly open to the machinations of global markets, to the interference of global companies and NGOs, and to the supervision of global public opinion and the international judicial system. States are obliged to conform to global standards of financial behavior, environmental policy, and justice. Immensely powerful currents of capital, labor, and information turn and shape the world, with a growing disregard for the borders and opinions of states.
• The knowledge produced by this research has made possible the construction of nuclear power stations, which provide cheap electricity for American industries, which pay taxes to the US government, which uses some of these taxes to finance further research in nuclear physics.
•Over the centuries, science has offered us many new tools. Even more important are technological tools. The connection forged between science and technology is so strong that today people tend to confuse the two.
• Markets and states do so by fostering ‘imagined communities’ that contain millions of strangers, and which are tailored to national and commercial needs.
• The temples of Enki and Inanna dominated the Uruk skyline, and their divine logos branded buildings, products, and clothes. For the Sumerians, Enki and Inanna were as real as Google and Microsoft are real for us. Compared to their predecessors – the ghosts and spirits of the Stone Age – the Sumerian gods were very powerful entities.
• All built forms are distinguishable from each other and their function can fairly be predicted by a mere glance.
• Transport routes enabled the formation of giant cities – polis and megapolis.
• Transportation is the main facilitator to the success of cities. Hence has dedicated built forms to station and function itself.
• The construction of structures to provide energy, renewable and non-renewable, gave the means for any technology to rise.
• Companies and Businesses that house the wheel of commerce have distinguishable features from previously invented houses.
• Structures relating to research and education function have been developed to fuel the Scientific Revolution and in turn, it further facilitates the economy.
• Technological giants have huge computers tor storage of data cloud or otherwise.
BRIEF FROM THE BOOK
• Perhaps most importantly, artificial intelligence and biotechnology are giving humanity the power to reshape and re-engineer life.
• Zuckerburg further explained that ‘We started a project to see if we could get better at suggesting groups that will be meaningful to you. We started building artificial intelligence to do this. And it works. In the first six months, we helped 50 percent more people join meaningful communities.’
• By 2050 AI can code software far better than humans, and a new Google Translate app enables you to conduct a conversation in almost flawless Mandarin, Cantonese or Hakka, even though you only know how to say ‘Ni hao.’
• But all jobs demanding this level of artistic creation might be taken over by AI.
• AI revolution is fuelled by breakthroughs in the life sciences and the social sciences as well as predicting human decisions, and replacing human drivers, bankers, and lawyers
• 10 billion AI doctors in the world – each monitoring the health of a single human being – you can still update all of them within a split second, and they can all communicate to each other their feedback on the new disease or medicine
• the replacement of human pilots by drones have eliminated some jobs but created many new opportunities in maintenance, remote control, data analysis, and cybersecurity.
algorithms are becoming the most important buyers of bonds, shares, and commodities. Similarly, in the advertisement business, the most important customer of all is an algorithm: the Google search algorithm.
• The Zara and Prada stores on Fifth Avenue could be replaced by 3-D printing centers in Brooklyn, and some people might even have a printer at home.
• Human-machine collaboration enables the potential to reimagine the existing methodologies.
• Sharing data over social media platforms enables more meaningful communities on the basis of peoples main interests.
• The algorithms can rewrite their initial code to have a more real application with human culture diversifying. Understanding and translating between different languages.
• Creation of Art, music or paintings is on the basis of algorithms and the interpretation by AI could change our perception of these topics.
• The adaptation of AI is possible in any field following an algorithmic logic, be it driving, lawyer, banks, etc and would update itself with any information through all fields inclusive of sciences and social sciences.
• The field of medicine revolutionized by the inclusion of AI with all the backing from big data. A person’s vitals can be monitored from existing technology and actions performed on a patient will be based on the constant update of data and also all existing data on medicine and its implementation.
• Clothing industry will probably have to undergo major alterations as the fashion industry is inching towards printed wearables. Companies could sell printing logic rather than the product itself, saving tremendously on transport and resources.
Diagram representing the linking and non-linking of information that could be passed from the Scientific Revolution onto Homo-Deus Revolution by means of Human- Machine collaboration.
Generated Program & Fenestration | Source: AI & Architecture, Stanislas Chaillou
AI will soon massively empower architects in their day to day practice. As such potential is about to be demonstrated, works such as AI & Architecture, Stanislas Chaillou participates to the proof of concept while the framework offers a springboard for discussion, inviting architects to start engaging with AI, and data scientists to consider Architecture as a field of investigation. Furthermore, the manifesto could be summarized in four major points.
Conceptually first, a statistical approach to design conception shapes AI’s potential for Architecture. Its less-deterministic and more-holistic character is undoubtedly a chance for our field. Rather than using machines to optimize a set of variables, relying on them to extract significant qualities and mimicking them all along the design process from the vast records of not only the built forms but also the circumstances will be a paradigm shift.
Second, it will be essential to design the right pipeline that will condition AI’s success as a new architectural toolset. The linking between emergent technologies and its possible architectural implication must synonymously update.
Third, the sequential nature of the application can facilitate its manageability and foster its development.
Finally, an open framework will help address the endless breadth and complexity of the models to be trained and those used in any generation pipeline.
Far from thinking about AI as the new dogma in Architecture, we conceive this field as a new challenge, full of potential, and promises. We see here the possibility for rich results, that will complement our practice and address some blind spots of our discipline.
Disturbed by digging
What’s more, the sediment below the body shows signs of having been disturbed by digging. “If you imagine you’re digging into soil or sediment to dig a grave or a little hole, that causes some compression of the soil, underneath that you’re taking out, because you’re pushing down,” says Pomeroy. The team found that the layer immediately under the body is compressed, but the deeper layers aren’t. “That’s quite good evidence that something was dug out and that’s what the body’s been put in.”
It isn’t clear if the remains belong to a new individual or to one of the previous finds, several of which are incomplete. Pomeroy says the body was probably accidentally cut in half by the original excavators, who removed the flower burial in a large block of rock.
Modern humans were burying their dead at least 100,000 years ago, says Pomeroy. We don’t know whether Neanderthals devised the behaviour themselves or if they learned it from humans, but we do know Neanderthals and humans encountered each other around the time of the Shanidar burials.
The Neanderthal in us: new DNA data reveals that many of us are carrying Neanderthal genes
Everyone knows that we have evolved from Homo sapiens but there is still a major debate between researchers and scientists today. What experts did not realize is just how alike we are to Homo sapiens.
In fact, it is believed that our Neanderthal genes may have given us all our human advantages. The new DNA studies reveal that many humans are carrying the Neanderthal genes. Not only that, but when our body uses these genes, we can actually become quite progressive – some of these genes come to play in situations where we need to be resourceful, pioneering, creative, and more.
Scientists have thought that we humans come from a branch of human evolution called Modern Humans independent of the Neanderthals. However, that thinking has all changed. Now, from looking at recently discovered genome sequences, we know that we are carrying Neanderthal genes, but scientists have yet to agree that those Neanderthal genes are the cause of the development of human civilization as we know it.
Anatomical comparison of skulls of Homo sapiens (left) and Homo Neanderthalensis (right)Source
Interestingly, modern humans hadn’t made much real progress in over 163,000 years. They didn’t invent much, develop any societies, or build much of anything. They were hunter-gatherers that didn’t make any technological progress. To explain it in better detail, human progress has only been initiated over the last 37,000 years. The traits of the modern humans could be described as traditional and stable, with a low tolerance for risk, innovation, change, and progress. To put it simply, they were too stable and did not rely on free thinking or creativity to make any progress over the first 163,000 years of existence.
Modern humans were also stuck in Africa for the most part. This was due to the fact that Neanderthals had occupied Europe and Asia, resulting in the Neanderthals being able to take out the modern humans if they strayed too close to their territory. Neanderthals were very combative, powerful, and skillful warriors.
Neanderthals were quite the opposite of modern humans. They were wild and very creative. They were also innovative, because if they had stopped battling and moving constantly they couldn’t have maintained the progress they had made. Without stability in this group, their creations, breakthroughs, and innovations would have been forgotten by newer generations to come. Their attention couldn’t have been held long enough to create a legacy.
Working in a clean room, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, took extensive precautions to avoid contaminating Neanderthal DNA samples.Source
These people loved battle, music, and chaos. They are still known as a warlike species, but experts often overlook the fact that they liked to fight in favor of exploring their societal skills archeologists have even found evidence of the Neanderthals having made musical instruments.
Going a little further into the study of the Neanderthal species, it’s been found that they were so random and creative that they couldn’t tolerate any type of settled society due to the fact that they were wild and wanted the chaotic life. They had so many ideas but could not sit still long enough to document them or keep up with them.
Being so wild, the Neanderthals were able to hold onto all of Europe and Asia, causing the modern humans to remain stuck in Africa. But it’s believed that about 37,000 years ago the Neanderthals mated with the modern humans. Scientists suddenly found a new gene in the human genome called the DRD4 and 7R gene. This gene is associated with risk-taking, sensation-seeking, and novelty-seeking behavior. These combined genes created the new “super” human hybrid tribe which was part Neanderthal and part modern human. Together, their gene pool improved and they eventually dominated because these new humans had the battle skills of Neanderthals as well as the stability of modern humans working together.
Reconstruction of the head of the Shanidar 1 fossil, a Neanderthal male who lived c. 70,000 years ago (John Gurche 2010)Source
The reason why this worked is that some people in that population activated the DRD4 7R gene, about 10%. Others were just carriers, about 20%, and some, about 80%, didn’t have it at all . Looking at this, scientists can tell how many humans these days may have these genes. The risk takers will obviously have the gene currently, 10% of the world are Uprisers (risk-takers) and about 90% are stabilizers (calm, comfortable, and stable.)
This new super human tribe became successful because they had both genes working in their favor. The Uprisers had all of the ideas and the stabilizers kept those ideas and settled in one area. Today, Uprisers are almost suppressed because there are fewer of them. Without the stablizers in society, Uprisers may not be as successful. To put it in perspective, Uprisers today would be labeled with ADHD, bipolar disorder, Asperger’s, or even autism.
Archeologists have found graves in which it’s been discovered that Neanderthals were buried with and used ephedrine, a chemical comparable to today’s Ritalin, Adderall, and Concerta. These drugs are more commonly used today to reduce the side effects of ADHD.