Ancient Underground City Found Hidden in Turkey's Trabzon Province

Ancient Underground City Found Hidden in Turkey's Trabzon Province

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Archaeologists from Turkey have announced the discovery of an underground city dating back 4,000 years and ostensibly belonging to a Byzantine dynasty. The lost city was unearthed during urban transformation works in Turkey's northern Trabzon province.

Discovery of Underground Byzantine City Suspends Project in Turkey

The Byzantine Empire had a vastly significant cultural legacy, both on the Greek Orthodox Church and on the revival of Greco-Roman classical studies, which influenced the Renaissance. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5 th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottomans in 1453. Its incredible legacy, however, continues to live in most parts of the vast area it once dominated. The recent discovery of a 4,000 year-old underground city in Turkey is more evidence to the magnitude of the great empire from the past.

Believed to belong to the Komnenian Dynasty, the underground city was discovered in a tunnel in Ortahisar district by construction workers digging for a project directed by Trabzon Municipality and the Housing Development Administration of Turkey. Soon after the discovery, local authorities postponed the transformation project as Daily Sabah reports , in order to protect the new finds.

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Mace-wielding Byzantine cavalry of Komnenos era in pursuit.

The Komnenian Dynasty

The period from about 1081 to 1185 is known as the Komnenian period, named after the Komnenos dynasty. Together, the five Komnenian Emperors – Alexios I, John II, Manuel I, Alexios II and Andronikos I – ruled for over a century, presiding over a sustained restoration of the military, territorial, economic and political position of the Byzantine Empire.

Greek monk and historian Michael Psellos reports that the family originated from the Greek village of Komne in Thrace. The first known member of the family, Manuel Erotikos Komnenos, acquired extensive estates at Kastamon in Paphlagonia, which became the stronghold of the family in the 11th century. The family thereby quickly became associated with the powerful and prestigious military aristocracy of Anatolia.

Emperor John II Komnenos , the most successful commander of the Komnenian army.

Byzantion, under the Komnenoi played a key role in the history of the Crusades in the Holy Land, while also “exporting” immense cultural and political influence in Europe, the Near East, and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea. The Komnenian emperors, particularly John and Manuel, exerted great influence over the Crusader states of Outremer, whilst Alexios I played a key role in the course of the First Crusade, which he helped bring about.

Moreover, it was during the Komnenian period that contact between Byzantium and the “Latin” Christian West, including the Crusader states, was at its most crucial stage. Venetian and other Italian traders became resident in Constantinople and the empire in large numbers (60–80,000 “Latins” in Constantinople alone), and their presence together with the numerous Latin mercenaries who were employed by Manuel in particular helped to spread Byzantine technology, art, literature and culture throughout the Roman Catholic west. Above all, the cultural impact of Byzantine art on the west in this period was enormous and of long lasting significance.

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Byzantine art - Mosaic of Daphni Monastery (ca. 1100).

The Komnenoi also made a significant contribution to the history of Asia Minor. By reconquering much of the region, the Komnenoi set back the advance of the Turks in Anatolia by more than two centuries. In the process, they planted the foundations of the Byzantine successor states of Nicaea, Epirus and Trebizond. Meanwhile, their extensive project of fortifications has left an enduring mark upon the Anatolian landscape, which can still be appreciated today.

Underground City Will Become a Tourist Attraction

Back to 2018, Ali Ayvazoğlu, Provincial Culture and Tourism Director, pointed out that Trabzon is historically known as the "city of tunnels,” while he also added that the underground city is expected to be unearthed and become a tourist attraction in the following years.

Furthermore, Mr. Ayvazoğlu was happy to announce another discovery in the region that demonstrates the glorious Greek past and presence in modern-day Turkey. A Greek Orthodox chapel only accessible through a hidden passage was found during the restoration of historic Sümela Monastery in Trabzon province. Work has immediately been launched to reveal the chapel and open it for visitors, as Daily Sabah reports .

The Sümela Monastery as seen from across the narrow Altındere valley that it is located in, south of Trabzon in Eastern Turkey. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

According to Mr. Ayvazoğlu the newly discovered chapel reportedly has different murals depicting the "heaven and hell, and death and life." An excited Mr. Ayvazoğlu said that some very nice surprises are awaiting for the visitors and tourists after all renovation work is complete, "Visitors will have the opportunity to see places they were previously unable to visit," Ayvazoğlu stated via Daily Sabah , adding that with the use of modern technology local authorities will do their best during restoration in order to avoid mistakes of the past when archaeological jewels of Greek and Christian origin were severely damaged.

The new Derinkuyu?

Trabzon still has many underground passages to discover. The local authorities hope, thanks to this, to further develop tourism in the region like Derinkuyu, an underground city in Cappadocia, which attracts thousands of visitors every year.

Spanning eleven floors, Derinkuyu was discovered by chance in 1963 when a man demolished a wall in his house and found a mysterious room behind it. He continued to dig and saw galleries and labyrinths appear in front of him.

Derinkuyu has been opened to the public after several years of archaeological excavation, and the curious can now explore up to half of it. In Trabzon, the newly discovered underground city has not finished revealing all its secrets.

There's a 5,000-Year-Old City Hidden in the Underground in Turkey

A couple of years ago, workers demolishing homes in Turkey's Cappadocia region chanced to find an underground network of rooms and tunnels. Soon enough, this hidden infrastructure was revealed to be a subterranean city built about 5,000 years back.

In a recent investigation, a team of Nevşehir University researchers turned to seismic tomography and geophysical resistivity to try and get a better idea of the city's anatomy and figure out just how big this ancient settlement might be.

They found evidence that the rooms and tunnels that comprise the subterranean city cover a surface of about 460,000 square meters (almost 5 million square feet), with some of the tunnels believed to go as deep as 113 meters (371 feet), DM informs.

The Nevşehir University scientists behind this research project estimate that, all in all, the underground settlement consists of about 7 kilometers (3.5 miles) of tunnels connecting a whole lot of rooms. Otherwise put, there's plenty of excavation work left to do.

Why was this subterranean city built?

As mentioned, the city was erected (or, better said, dug up) about 5,000 years ago. It sits right beneath an ancient fortress in present-day Turkey's Cappadocia region and its surrounding area, which is why researchers believe it was meant to serve as a safe haven.

Since the city hasn't yet been completely excavated, its exact anatomy remains a mystery. Still, it is believed that it comprises living spaces, kitchens, and even tombs and churches, all neatly arranged on several levels connected by staircases.

The settlement was most likely built to protect people living in this corner of the world in ancient times from invaders. Researchers suspect that, when threatened, men, women and children would retreat in the underground and remained hidden until it was safe to return to their homes.

Another underground city sits nearby

This 5,000-year-old subterranean settlement isn't Turkey's only ancient underground city. On the contrary, it was in the 1960's that another such network of rooms and settlements arranged on several levels was discovered in the Derinkuyu district in the country's Nevşehir Province.

This other ancient underground city is estimated to reach a depth of 60 meters (nearly 200 feet). In its heydays, it could accommodate up to 20,000 people and keep them safe while invaders stormed the region, archaeologists and historians explain.

Like the hidden settlement discovered by workers in 2013, this other city, named Derinkuyu after the district where it is located, is quite complex and comprises living quarters, kitchens, bathrooms, communal rooms, and even wells and stables for animals.

Interestingly, Derinkuyu was too discovered quite by mistake. Thus, the city was found by a man while tearing down one of the walls of his basement. Despite the fact that it was discovered decades ago, the city has not yet been fully excavated.

Massive ancient underground city discovered

This sounds promising, a massive underground city located dating back 5,000 years, which seems much older than the dates generally given for such.

With 2014 soon coming to an end, potentially the year’s biggest archeological discovery of an underground city has come from Turkey’s Central Anatolian province of Nevşehir, which is known world-wide for its Fairy Chimneys rock formation.

The city was discovered by means of Turkey’s Housing Development Administration’s (TOKİ) urban transformation project. Some 1,500 buildings were destructed located in and around the Nevşehir fortress, and the underground city was discovered when the earthmoving to construct new buildings had started.

TOKİ Head Mehmet Ergün Turan said the area where the discovery was made was announced as an archeological area to be preserved.

“It is not a known underground city. Tunnel passages of seven kilometers are being discussed. We stopped the construction we were planning to do on these areas when an underground city was discovered,” said Turan.

The city is thought to date back 5,000 years and is located around the Nevşehir fortress. Escape galleries and hidden churches were discovered inside the underground city.

Brilliant find mate, love to see discoveries such as this one come to light!

Yes it's good especially given dating it back thus far to 5,000 years old

That’s because the find appears to be nearly unmatched in both its scale and its age. Experts believe that the underground city dates back 5,000 years, to the time of the Hittites. The seven-kilometer tunnel that was discovered connects to other underground living spaces in the area, covering an area of bout 800,000 square meters.

Nevsehir area is already home to several well known underground cities, however, relatively speaking the latest find is many times larger than all of them put together.

An interesting fact of note is that the famous underground city of Derinkuyu is also located in the same Turkish province of Nevşehir. However, this new discovery is estimated to be larger and about 2000-2500 years older than Derinkuyu.

Furthermore, Nevşehir Province has several other historical underground cities. Derinkuyu connects to another underground city called Kaymakli via an 8 km tunnel. It would be amazing to see if this new discovery also connects to the aforementioned underground dwellings.

I have to agree considering 5000 years is pretty much as far back as our recorded history stretches. Its great to find archaeological sites such as this considering how little we know or understand regarding our ancient past.

I wonder if this site has similar doors to the ones discovered at Derinkuyu? Those things are engineering marvels in themselves considering there weight, location and the fact that only one individual was required to close them into place.

It will be interesting to see how this has been dated, as you say up to now they haven't been thought to date much earlier than the Byzantine period, so it will re-raise the issue of who first constructed them and why.

Fascinating! You mentioned here what I have always wondered. That is why were these types of cities constructed. What was going on, on this planet that made these necessary? Was it too hot on the surface? Were there storms of meteors going on. Were there perhaps Giants, or other nasties to hide from on the surface? Also i see that some of these have very low ceilings. Short statured inhabitants, or maybe it was simply that less material was removed this way, and that made it a little easier for construction. Not that removing solid rock would be very easy anyways.
Good Thread!
Thanx for the share.

Awesome find, seems they discovered it in 2013 but have only found 44 artefacts there - it will be fascinating to learn what these artefacts are - but it seems a tiny number to me, they could even be trash which would suggest that the place was pretty comprehensively emptied at some point in the past. Perhaps abandoned due to conflict, i think that these underground cities in Turkey were built to act as refuges from opposing factions (iirc).

I've never read so much detail about Cappadocia (i really should) and don't know if such a low number of finds is typical or not but i am surprised, especially given the suggested size of this new site.

I'm kinda surprised that after only a year or so that they are already working on installing galleries and opening the place to the public too, perhaps it will only be partial and will fund further examination of other parts of the site. One can hope, at least.

The dating may be a key part of the answer in that 5'000 years ago is around the time of the rise of the city state empires. It may really be as simple as an underground city with numerous escapes being far easier to defend than an above ground city.

It may also be worth checking the geological record for that era. Cappadocia is very volcanically active (or has been at various points). Possible shelter cities?

Basically, there are loads of possible variations of the needs for such a location. Much further investigation is surely needed.

Possibly the reason for such a lack of artifacts is the very location - Cappadocia has been one of those areas heavily involved throughout human history. Many major conflicts have taken place in the region and many refugees and displaced peoples have been in the era through the millenia. Underground cities, as such, would be amazing hiding places in these circumstances and also an excelletn opportunity to pick through whatever you find down there.

It seems odd if they were first discovered in 2013 that they are only now being announced publicly, obviously they have been considerably explored to have a general idea of the size yet only images from around the entrance are released, so that's not good.

The number of finds as you say is surprising, you'd expect that what went down there stayed down there unless it was of obvious value, there should be more trash artifacts. Pushing back earliest date to 5,000 years ago does raise obvious questions as to who could have constructed the first depths, that pre-dates even the Hittite empire by some 1,400 years.

My own hope on these is that they constitute the basis for the Vara of Yima, the underground version of the Ark mythos were all the people and their animals took refuge to escape the cold above, most probably relating to the end of the last ice age, but that of course would require the first basis to be considerably older even than 5,000 years.

As i mention above there is the tradition of building an underground Vara to escape from the frozen world above, it's just that i'd expect that to be further North and back in time.

I would like to know if a super volcano was a reason to go under. My problem with this idea is reaction time to such a cataclysm.

Here yet again, is one of those places where the older the site, the more extensive and elaborate it seems to be. Like the knowledge to do these things was ancient, and as time went on, much of it was gradually forgotten.

I also wonder what may have necessitated so many underground dwellings, obviously built for the long haul. I also wonder if these may be much older than they think at this point. Guess we'll have to wait and see if any portion goes back to the ice age.

I have a feeling this isn't the last one of these they're going to find. Thanks Kantz.

I think the basis of these sites could be much older, even though they all seem to have seen later development and additions, and like i said it's very odd that they have been sat on these for what must have been the best part of two years and explored as far as possible before announcing, and even then talking rubbish as far as 5,000 year dating possibly relating to Hittites.

I can't imagine these were built for any kind of natural disaster escape of hiding from conflict. The amount of time it had to take to actually remove the material would have been lifetimes and generations for a place this size.

originally posted by: Vasa Croe
I can't imagine these were built for any kind of natural disaster escape of hiding from conflict. The amount of time it had to take to actually remove the material would have been lifetimes and generations for a place this size.

There appears to be conflicting data regarding climate change around 5200 years ago. For example, Ohio State University have drilled ice cores in South America (Peru) and found many interesting things, amongst them a wetland plant preserved below the ice sheets / glaciers, with enough DNA present to allow dating to 5200 years ago. This is remarkarble as it showed it was preserved in one hit and then never saw the sun again - indicating a massive snowfall. As Dr Thompson himself said "

And yet we also have evidence suggesting that around 5'000 years ago, we have already transformed around a fifth of the land mass, freeing enough Carbon Dioxide to alter local climates. As Turkey was right at the front of the queue in terms of agricultural development, this would appear to mean that Turkey would have been warming rather than freezing. Humans indelible stamp on Earth clear 5000 years ago.

Combine this with a tectonically active region and the rise of warring city states and i do not believe it would be too much of a stretch to want to go underground!

Regarding carving the rock etc. One thing we also dismiss for some reason is that we are significantly weaker these days than we were 500 yeras ago. People 500 years ago were significantly weaker than people 5000-7000 years ago - this is scientifically verifiable through testing on bones, muscle joints, etc, etc. Physically, what our ancestors could achieve significantly outweighs what we could achieve.

A man in Turkey’s Nevşehir Province knocked down the wall of his home in 1963. He noticed a mysterious room behind it and soon discovered a complex tunnel system with extra cave-like rooms. What he had found was an ancient underground city in Turkey called Derinkuyu.

The secret underground city was discovered in 1963

Discrete entrances, ventilation shafts, wells, and connection pathways were included in the elaborate subterranean network. Thousands of years ago, it was one of the hundreds of underground settlements carved from rock in Cappadocia. For centuries, it has remained hidden.

This particular complex is situated in the modern town of Derinkuyu, almost exactly in the middle of Turkey in the area better known as ‘Cappadocia.’

The ancient city has become a popular tourist attraction for the region

That the man found this complex while digging out his house was surprising, as was its size, but Cappadocia was already famous for its underground dwellings. There are over two hundred known underground “cities” of various sizes in the region (most of them would more properly be called “villages” or “hamlets”).

At least forty of them have three or more levels, with Kaymakli and Derinkuyu having eight and eighteen (!), respectively. Most archaeologists believe that the caves were begun by the Phrygian people (one of the many “sea peoples” that invaded the Aegean and Turkish area from the west, and who are mentioned in ancient texts) in about the 7th or 8th centuries B.C.

Located in Derinkuyu, Turkey the network of tunnels runs 85m deep

Some believe the caves are older, and date from the Hittite period some five hundred years before that. Regardless of who dug it, the cave system at Derinkuyu especially was not built by “stupid troglodytes”–these were exceedingly smart troglodytes.

As one can imagine, there are many good reasons for building a city underground. First and foremost was likely defense, but of course, shelter from the weather was an important factor too. No wind, no rain or snow, protection from the blazing Mediterranean sun.

Another factor was access to water. Rivers and lakes run dry and enemies might control water sources in an effort to subdue your people, but if you are sitting directly on top of an aquifer, you’ve got all the water you’ll ever need.

Cave-like chapels and Greek inscriptions can be seen still to this day

The cleverness of the people at Derinkuyu is illustrated by the fact that one of the wells there (over two hundred feet down) was controlled by those on the deepest levels. Access to the wells could be closed tight with wood and stone so those above could not attempt to poison the water below.

The stone in Cappadocia is soft volcanic rock left eons ago. One might call it sandstone, from its looks, but it is not. Though relatively easy to dig through (compared to granite, for example), it was still no small undertaking for the people of Cappadocia to dig out.

This also means that the stone can be carved easily. Later troglodytic complexes include elaborate early Christian churches, with arches embedded in the ceiling.

It is thought that the city could hold up to 20,000 people as well as livestock and food

Security was built in. Entrances were in high or in very well-hidden places. The tunnels and stairways are just wide enough for one adult to make their way through – enemy warriors could only fight one on one in the corridors.

Oil lamps lit the halls, stairways, and dwellings, and could be extinguished by retreating warriors and families to confuse invaders. Dead-ends known only to those living in the complex would also add to any confusion.

Large circular stones could be rolled into tunnels, blocking further advance. During the original Turkish invasions in the 10th century, and into the Ottoman era, these caves were used as refuge and defense.

Heavy stone doors could close Derinkuyu from the inside to fend off intruders

Some of the smaller troglodyte dwellings (and that’s what they’re called) are still inhabited. Many of the others were lived in until early in the 20th century.

The large complex at Kaymakli was last used as a refuge by Anatolian Greeks fearing the massacres that were taking place in the war between Turkey and Greece in the early 1920s.

Today, many of these underground cities and towns are open to the public and are Turkish national treasures.

Stunning caves were connected to other underground cities by long tunnels

The large complexes at Kaymakli and Derinkuyu offer guided tours through the approximately ten percent of the cave systems that are open to the public.

First Known Ancient Underground City in Turkey used for Permanent Living Will Rewrite History

In December last year, an ancient subterranean city was discovered in Cappadocia, Turkey, consisting of at least 7 kilometers (3.5 miles) of tunnels, hidden churches, and escape galleries dating back around 5,000 years. Archaeologists hailed it as the “biggest archaeological finding in 2014” in Turkey. Now, following extensive excavations, the mayor in the Central Anatolian Nevşehir province has announced that it is the first known underground city in which people lived permanently.

Through the ages, the Hittites, Persians, Alexander the Great, Rome, The Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, and Turkey have all governed the spectacular region of Cappadocia in Central Anatolia. One hundred square miles with more than 200 underground villages and tunnel towns complete with hidden passages, secret rooms and ancient temples and a remarkably storied history of each new civilization building on the work of the last, make Cappadocia one of the world's most striking and largest cave-dwelling regions of the world. Cities, empires and religions have risen and fallen around these unique underground havens, and yet it seems they still hold a few more secrets. The mayor of the region has announced that the recently discovered ancient subterranean world may “rewrite the history of the city.”

The incredible cave houses of Cappadocia, Turkey. Source: BigStockPhoto

The ancient city was found beneath Nevşehir fortress and the surrounding area, during an urban transformation project carried out by Turkey’s Housing Development Administration (TOKİ).

Nevşehir province is already famous for its incredible subterranean city at Derinkuyu (pictured in featured image), which was once home to as many as 20,000 residents. It is eleven levels deep and has 600 entrances and many miles of tunnels connecting it to other underground cities. It incorporates areas for sleeping, stables for livestock, wells, water tanks, pits for cooking, ventilation shafts, communal rooms, bathrooms, and tombs.

Nevşehir province in Cappadocia, Turkey (Wikimedia Commons)

Unlike other underground cities found throughout the region of Cappadocia, which were mostly used for temporary protection, Hurriyet Daily News reports that evidence has been found that ancient peoples were living there on a permanent basis, and that the subterranean passages and spaces are different to any other underground city found in the world.

“We have reached significant discoveries new long tunnels and spaces where people lived all together. Places where linseed oil was produced, chapels and tunnels combining various living spaces in the underground city were found,” said Hasan Ünver, the mayor of Nevşehir. “This is a real underground city where they resided permanently and not like other underground cities where they had lived temporarily. We are definite that we will also reach very important information and discoveries regarding world history,” Ünver added [via Hurriyet Daily News].

An excavated section of the recently discovered underground city in Turkey, showing evidence of permanent habitation. Credit: Anadolu Agency.

It is hard to imagine anything surpassing the Derinkuyu underground city in both size and scope, but archaeologists are saying they have reason to believe the newly discovered subterranean city will be the largest out of all the other underground cities in Nevşehir and may even be the largest underground city in the world.

The mayor has said that they are planning to open the first part of the excavated underground city in 2017.

VIA “” by Anna Lemind The Mind Unleashed

A 5,000-year-old underground city discovered in central Turkey in December 2014 is thought to be the largest in the world!

The previously unknown ancient metropolis was unearthed in the course of the implementation of an urban transformation project initiated by Turkey’s Housing Development Administration’s (TOKİ) in Nevşehir province of Central Anatolia.

While carrying out earthmoving works in the area, which was meant to be used for the construction of new buildings, the developers stumbled upon a massive underground network of cave tunnels, escape galleries and chambers spanning over 3.5 miles (7 kilometers).

A reconstruction of what the Derinkuyu underground city is believed to have looked like (Wikipedia)

In fact, it is not the first time when a subterranean settlement is found by accident in Turkey.

The region of Cappadocia, where the province of Nevşehir is located, is known for its historical and archaeological legacy as it once was a province of the Roman Empire.

Nevşehir province in Cappadocia, Turkey (Wikimedia Commons) The incredible cave houses of Cappadocia, Turkey. Source: BigStockPhoto

The upper levels of the complex were first spotted in 2013, but its full size became apparent only at the end of 2014. Despite the fact that 90 million Turkish liras (around $35 million) have been spent on the project so far, the construction was postponed and the area was registered with Turkey’s Cultural and National Heritage Preservation Board. Till now, 44 historical objects from the site have been taken under preservation.

It is not a known underground city. Tunnel passages of seven kilometers are being discussed. We stopped the construction we were planning to do on these areas when an underground city was discovered,” said TOKİ Head Mehmet Ergün Turan.

It is estimated that the newly-found complex, which consists of a network of carved rooms and tunnels and also contains hidden churches and numerous artefacts, dates back 5,000 years and may actually be the world’s largest underground city. Well, it is certainly the largest among the other archaeological sites in Nevşehir, which is famous for its underground cities and villages. It even surpasses in size the 18-story subterranean city at Derinkuyu, which is believed to have once accommodated nearly 20,000 residents and was connected by many miles of underground tunnels. Nevşehir mayor Hasan Ünver said that the other underground cities of the area have the size of a “kitchen” in comparison with the newly discovered complex.

While there is still very little known about the new subterranean metropolis, archeologists have already made some hypotheses about its possible function. Thus, Özcan Çakır of the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University thinks that the city may have served for storing and transporting agricultural products.

We believe that people who were engaged in agriculture were using the tunnels to carry agricultural products to the city. We also estimate that one of the tunnels passes under Nevşehir and reaches a faraway water source,” he said.

We still have much to discover about this ancient underground city, and further excavation and archaeological research in the area will shed more light on this unique find.

Featured image: Derinkuyu underground city in Cappadocia, Turkey. Source: BigStockPhoto

Incredible underground city in Turkey that runs 18 storeys deep discovered by local who was renovating his home

These stunning images show the underground 18-storey city discovered by chance by a man renovating his home.

In 1963, a Turkish dad knocked down a wall in his basement, revealing a secret room which led to an underground tunnel that took him to the ancient city of Derinkuyu.

Photos of the preserved city document how 20,000 people - including livestock and entire food supplies - could have lived 85m beneath the earth.

Thought to have been created during the Byzantine era in 780-1180AD, the network of kitchens, stables, churches, tombs, wells, communal rooms and schools was most likely used as a bunker to protect inhabitants from the Arab–Byzantine wars.

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During this time, cave-like chapels and Greek inscriptions were added to the ancient city , and about 600 entrances allowed people to come and go.

Heavy stone doors could close Derinkuyu from the inside in order to fend off intruders, and each storey could be shut off individually.

Amazingly, Derinkuyu isn&apost the only one of its kind - though it&aposs in the running to be one of the largest underground cities.

The hidden community, in the region of Cappadocia, is connected to other subterranean cities by tunnels stretching several miles.

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Only about half of Derinkuyu is accessible, but the site has proved to be a popular tourist attraction.

The historical region in Central Anatolia also attracts visitors with its incredible geological, historic, and cultural features, including rock formations and spires known as &aposfairy chimneys

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