Ingraham II DD 4 - History

Ingraham II DD 4 - History

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Ingraham II

(DD-4: dp. 1,630; 1. 347'9"; b. 36'1", dr. 11'10" - a 33 k.; cgl. 208; a. 5 5", 12 .50 cal. mg., 1 Y gun, 10 21" tt.,

2 act.; cl. Gleaves )

The second Ingraham (DD-4) was launched 15 February 1941 by the Charleston Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. George Ingraham Hutchinson, granddaughter of Captain Ingraham; and commissioned 17 July 1941, Lt. Comdr. W. 11. Haynsworth, Jr., in command.

After shakedown and local operations along the East Coast, Ingraham commenced duties as convoy escort December 1941 as the Japanese surprise attack drew America into the flght for freedom. During 1942 she escorted convoys between the United States, Iceland, and the United Bingdom, bringing supplies desperately needed by the Allies to stem Hitler's advance and to take the ollensive. Under constant threat from German U-boats Ingraham continued her escort duty to Europe and as far south as the Panama Canal.

On the night of 22 August as she was investigating a collision between U.S. destroyer Buck and a merchant vessel, Ingraham collided with tanker Chemung in heavy fog off the coast of Nova Scotia and Ingraham sank almost irmnediately. Depth charges on her stern exploded. Only 11 men survived the collision. She was struck from the Navy Register 11 September 1942.


This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.

    Gleaves Class Destroyer
    Keel Laid November 15 1939 - Launched February 15 1941

Naval Covers

This section lists active links to the pages displaying covers associated with the ship. There should be a separate set of pages for each incarnation of the ship (ie, for each entry in the "Ship Name and Designation History" section). Covers should be presented in chronological order (or as best as can be determined).

Since a ship may have many covers, they may be split among many pages so it doesn't take forever for the pages to load. Each page link should be accompanied by a date range for covers on that page.


This section lists examples of the postmarks used by the ship. There should be a separate set of postmarks for each incarnation of the ship (ie, for each entry in the "Ship Name and Designation History" section). Within each set, the postmarks should be listed in order of their classification type. If more than one postmark has the same classification, then they should be further sorted by date of earliest known usage.

A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
>>> If you have a better example for any of the postmarks, please feel free to replace the existing example.

Postmark Type
Killer Bar Text

Commissioning, cachet by Walter Czubay. Postmark may be backdated. Because of wartime security measures, ships were receiving "Z" postmarks not named postmarks.

USCS Postmark
Catalog Illus. CD-Z3

Other Information

USS INGRAHAM collided with the oil tanker USS CHEMUNG AO 30 in heavy fog off the coast of Nova Scotia and sank almost immediately. Depth charges on her stern exploded.

NAMESAKE - Captain Duncan Nathaniel Ingraham, USN (December 6 1802 – October 16 1891).
Ingraham was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal following his actions regarding Martin Koszta, a Hungarian who had declared in New York his intention of becoming an American citizen, and who had been seized and confined in the Austrian ship Hussar.
Captain Ingraham served as Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrographer of the Navy from 1856 until 1860.
He resigned from the U.S. Navy February 4 1861 to enter the Confederate States Navy with the rank of Captain. He served as Commandant of the Charleston naval station from 1862 to 1865.

Four ships of the US Navy have been named USS Ingraham in honor of Captain Duncan Ingraham -
USS Ingraham DD-111/DM-9, USS Ingraham DD-444, USS Ingraham DD-694 and USS Ingraham FFG-61.

The ships sponsor was Mrs. George Ingraham Hutchinson, granddaughter of Captain Ingraham.

If you have images or information to add to this page, then either contact the Curator or edit this page yourself and add it. See Editing Ship Pages for detailed information on editing this page.

Ingraham được chế tạo tại Xưởng hải quân Charleston. Nó được đặt lườn vào ngày 15 tháng 11 năm 1939 được hạ thủy vào ngày 15 tháng 2 năm 1941, và được đỡ đầu bởi bà George Ingraham Hutchinson, cháu Đại tá Ingraham. Con tàu được cho nhập biên chế cùng Hải quân Hoa Kỳ vào ngày 19 tháng 7 năm 1941 [1] dưới quyền chỉ huy của Thiếu tá Hải quân William M. Haynsworth, Jr..

Sau khi hoàn tất việc chạy thử máy, Ingraham hoạt động dọc theo vùng bờ Đông, rồi làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống vận tải vào tháng 12 năm 1941, sau khi Đế quốc Nhật Bản bất ngờ tấn công Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 7 tháng 12 năm 1941, lôi kéo Hoa Kỳ tham gia chiến tranh. Trong năm 1942, nó hộ tống các đoàn tàu vận tải đi lại giữa Hoa Kỳ, và Anh Quốc, vận chuyển hàng tiếp liệu đang rất cần thiết cho những nỗ lực chiến tranh của khối Đồng Minh. Dưới mối đe dọa thường trực của những tàu ngầm U-boat Đức, nó tiếp tục làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống sang Châu Âu, và về phía Nam đến tận vùng kênh đào Panama.

Trong đêm 22 tháng 8, đang khi khảo sát một vụ tai nạn va chạm giữa tàu khu trục Buck cùng một tàu buôn, Ingraham lại mắc tai nạn va chạm với tàu chở dầu Chemung trong hoàn cảnh sương mù dày đặc ngoài khơi bờ biển Nova Scotia, và nó bị đắm hầu như ngay lập tức. Những quả mìn sâu nó mang theo phía đuôi tàu đã kích nổ dưới nước, gây tổn thất nhân mạng nặng nề, nên chỉ có 11 người sống sót sau vụ va chạm. Tên của Ingraham được cho rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 11 tháng 9 năm 1942.

Ingraham II DD 4 - History

The Ingraham (FFG 61) is the 51st and last Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided-missile frigate and also the fourth ship to honor the name of Captain Duncan Nathaniel Ingraham (1802-1891). Captain Ingraham, while commanding the sloop St. Louis in the Mediterranean Squadron in July 1852, interfered with the Austrian consul's detention of Martin Kosztca, a Hungarian who had declared in New York his intention of becoming an American citizen. For his conduct in this matter he was voted thanks and a medal by Congress.

The keel was laid down on March 30, 1987, by Todd Pacific Shipyards Corp., Seattle Division. The ship was christened and launched on June 25, 1988, by Mrs. Linda E. Carlson. USS Ingraham was commissioned on August 5, 1989 Cmdr. Charles C. Vogan is the first commanding officer.

January 22, 2002 USS Ingraham returned to Everett after a six-month Arabian Gulf deployment, as part of the USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) Battle Group.

March 12, The Ingraham commenced a three-month Drydocking Selected Restricted Availability (DSRA). Underway in support of Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2002 exercise, in the Hawaiian Op. Area, from June 15 through July 30 Underway for CART II from Aug. 12-16 Underway Demonstration (UD) from Oct. 9-11 Ammo onload at Naval Magazine Indian Island from Oct. 23-24 Underway for Group Sail from Oct. 25- Nov. 1 Underawy for Composite Training Unit Exercise (COMPTUEX) from Nov. 7- Dec. 1.

January 9, 2003 USS Ingraham departed Naval Station Everett for a scheduled deployment as part of the USS Carl Vinson Carrier Strike Group (CSG).

January 13, The Ingraham pulled into Naval Station San Diego, Calif., for a two-day port call. Inport Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, from Jan. 22-25.

From January 28 through Feb. 20, the guided-missile frigate conducted Strike Group training in the Guam Op. Area. Upkeep in Yokosuka, Japan, from Feb. 23- March 10.

March 14, USS Ingraham moored at Sembawang Shipyard in Singapore for a three-day port call before conducting maritime escort operations in the Strait of Malacca, in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Inport Sembawang again on March 29 and April 3-4 Ready Tail Ship operations in the Philippine Islands from April 13-16 Brief stop in Okinawa on April 18.

April 20, The Ingraham pulled into Apra Harbor, Guam, for a brief port call before participating in a two-week exercise Tundem Thrust.

May 10, FFG 61 arrived in Fleet Activities Yokosuka for a five-day port call. Port visit to Saipan from May 19-25 Inport Guam again from May 28- June 1 Conducted ASW operations in the Guam OPAREA through June 18.

June 26, USS Ingraham pulled into Singapore for a four-day port visit. Port call to Fremantle, Australia, from July 9-14 Inport Okinawa, Japan, from July 29- Aug. 1.

August 6, The Ingraham pulled into Hong Kong for a four-day port visit.

August 23, Cmdr. Mark D. Colby relieved Cmdr. John Kersh, Jr,. as the 10th CO of USS Ingraham during a change-of-command ceremony held on the ship&rsquos forecastle.

August 27, The guided-missile frigate arrived in Kure, Japan, for a four-day port visit after participated in exercise Ulchi Focus Lens, off the coast of South Korea. Emergent repairs in Yokosuka from Sept. 1-3 Brief stop in San Diego to disembark personnel from Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron Light (HSL) 45 Detachment on Sept. 15.

September 19, USS Ingraham returned to Naval Station Everett after more than an eight-month deployment in the U.S. 7th Fleet AoR.

From November 3-20, the Ingraham was underway for a 10-day port call to San Diego for Pre-INSURV groom. Underway for routine training from Dec. 7-10 Underway in support of CNO project at the Nanoose test range off British Columbia from Dec. 14-19.

January 5, 2004 FFG 61 departed homeport for a transit to San Diego to receive the new non-skid deck. Inport Naval Base San Diego from Jan. 9-20.

January 20, USS Ingraham arrived in Port Hueneme, Calif., for a three-day visit to Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) for combat systems groom. Ammo offload at Indian Island, Wash., from Jan. 26-28 Returned home on Jan. 28.

April 14, The Ingraham transited to Todd Shipyard for a five-month Extended Drydocking Selected Restricted Availability (E-DSRA). Entered the dry-dock on May 11 Moved to Pier 5 on Aug. 7 Returned to Naval Station Everett on Sept. 17 Underway for sea trials from Oct. 6-7 Underway for ammo onload at Naval Magazine Indian Island on Oct. 12 Anchored off Everett on Oct. 13 Underway for local operations from Oct. 14-18 Underway again on Oct. 28 Inport San Diego for more non-skid work and TRAV from Nov. 1-15 Underway in the SOCAL Op. Area from Nov. 15-24 Inport Naval Base San Diego from Nov. 24-29 Underway for local operations from Nov. 29- Dec. 7 Inport San Diego from Dec. 7-8 Underway in support of USS Nimitz (CVN 68) CSG's COMPTUEX as part of opposition forces from Dec. 8-10.

December 14, Cmdr. Ricks W. Polk relieved Cmdr. Mark D. Colby as CO of the Ingraham during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship in the eastern Bank Op. Area off Puget Sound, just before return to homeport.

July ?, 2005 USS Ingraham departed Everett for a scheduled deployment, with the USS Tarawa Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) 1, in support of the Global War on Terrorism.

July 29, ESG 1 conducted a successful anti-submarine warfare (ASW) exercise with the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF), off the coast of Hawaii, from July 25-26. The strike group&rsquos flagship, USS Tarawa (LHA 1) the amphibious dock landing ship USS Cleveland (LPD 7) guided-missile cruiser USS Chosin (CG 65) guided-missile frigate USS Ingraham and fast-attack submarine USS Santa Fe (SSN 763) teamed up with JMSDF destroyers Myoko (DDG 175), Makinami (DD 112) and Akebono (DD 108).

August 15, The frigate pulled into Broome, Australia, for a scheduled port visit.

September 23, FFG 61 is currently participating in exercise Bright Star, the largest and most significant coalition military exercise conducted by U.S. Central Command off the coast of Egypt, from Sept. 10 through Oct. 3. It is designed to strengthen regional stability and improve inter-military cooperation, as well as cooperation among participating nations. Along with the United States, other participating countries included, France Germany, Greece, Italy, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Pakistan, Jordan, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.

January 16, 2006 USS Ingraham returned to homeport after a six-month deployment in the U.S. 5th, 6th and 7th Fleet AoR.

June 8, The Ingraham pulled into Portland, Oregon, to participate in Rose Festival's Fleet Week, an annual event in which ships from the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard and Canadian navy transit up the Columbia River to take part in the festival.

September 15, Cmdr. Richard M. Odom, II relieved Cmdr. Ricks W. Polk as commanding officer of the FFG 61.

May 18, 2007 USS Ingraham returned to Naval Station Everett after a two-week underway in support of joint training exercise Trident Fury, in the waters west of Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

November 1, USS Ingraham departed Everett for a scheduled deployment, as part of USS Tarawa (LHA 1) Expeditionary Strike Group. Departed Naval Base San Diego on Nov. 5.

December 1, The guided-missile frigate pulled into Takamatsu, Japan, for a five-day port visit, the first visit by an U.S. Navy ship in over 10 years.

February 15, 2008 FFG 61 recently departed Jebel Ali, U.A.E., after routine port call.

March 20, Cmdr. Matthew D. Ovios relived Cmdr. Richard M. Odom, II as CO of USS Ingraham during a change-of-command ceremony aboard the ship in port of Limassol, Cyprus.

April 3, The Ingraham anchored off Phuket, Thailand, for a scheduled port visit.

May 9, USS Ingraham returned to Naval Station Everett after a six-month deployment. The ship participated in exercises Indigo Serpent, Eagle Salute, Iron Siren and visited 13 ports, including Penang, Malaysia Manama, Bahrain and Sofaga, Egypt.

September 11, FFG 61 completed sea trials as part of the last stage of the ship's three-month Selected Restricted Availability (SRA).

July 23, 2009 USS Ingraham returned to Everett after a three-day underway for Group Sail operations, off the coast of Washington, with the USS Rodney M. Davis (FFG 60), USS Shoup (DDG 86) and USS Momsen (DDG 92).

September 8, USS Ingraham departed Everett for a scheduled western Pacific deployment.

September 24, The guided-missile frigate arrived in Papeete, Tahiti, for a three-day port call. This is the third time in five years that a U.S. Navy ship has visited French Polynesia.

October 1, USS Ingraham arrived off the coast of American Samoa to provide humanitarian assistance after a magnitude-8.4 earthquake struck the region at 6:48 a.m. local time Tuesday, about 120 miles south of the islands of Samoa, resulting in a destructive tsunami with four 15- to 20-foot waves that hit the east side of American Samoa. At least 119 people were killed on Samoa and American Samoa. The ship departed Pago Pago on Oct. 4.

October 28, FFG 61 anchored off Phuket, Thailand, for a goodwill port visit.

December 13, Cmdr. Adam J. Welter relieved Cmdr. Matthew D. Ovios as commanding officer of the Ingraham in a ceremony held aboard the ship.

March 1, 2010 The Ingraham pulled into Chittagong, Bangladesh, for a scheduled port call.

April 10, USS Ingraham returned to homeport after a seven-month deployment in the U.S. 3rd, 5th and 7th Fleet Areas of Responsibility (AoR).

May 19, 2011 The Ingraham is currently underway in support of the USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74) CSG's Composite Training Unit Exercise (COMPTUEX) as part of opposition forces.

June 9, FFG 61 arrived in Portland, Ore., for a four-day port visit to participate in Portland Fleet Week festivities during the city's 104th annual Rose Festival.

June 10, Cmdr. Kristin L. Stengel relieved Cmdr. Adam J. Welter as CO of the Ingraham during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship.

September 26, USS Ingraham departed Naval Station Everett for a scheduled deployment to the U.S. Southern Command AoO.

October 15, The guided-missile frigate recently pulled into Puerto Quetzal, Guatemala, for a brief port call.

October 26, The Ingraham recently moored at Vasco Nunez de Balboa naval base for a brief port visit to Panama.

November 1, USS Ingraham arrived again in Balboa Naval Base for a scheduled port visit to Panama City.

November 14, FFG 61 pulled again into Puerto Quetzal for a routine port call to pick up fuel and supplies.

December 17, USS Ingraham arrived again in Puerto Quetzal, Guatemala, for a routine port call.

December 25, The guided-missile frigate recently departed Vasco Nunez de Balboa naval base after another routine port visit for fuel and supplies. The Ingraham arrived again in Panama for a brief port visit Jan. 6.

January 15, 2012 U.S. Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV) the Honorable Ray Mabus visited USS Ingraham while pierside at Vasco Nunez de Balboa naval base.

February 7, FFG 61 moored at Balboa Naval Base for a scheduled port visit to Panama City.

February 22, The Ingraham recently departed Panama City after another port call.

March 14, The guided-missile frigate recently arrived at Vasco Nunez de Balboa for its last visit to Panama.

April 2, The Ingraham departed Naval Base San Diego after a brief port call to pick up "Tigers".

April 6, USS Ingraham returned to Everett, Wash., after more than a six-month deployment in support of Counter Transnational Organized Crime (C-TOC) operations.

June 7, USS Ingraham arrived in Portland, Ore., for a four-day port visit to participate in the 105th annual Portland Rose Festival.

July 20, FFG 61 pulled into Canadian naval base in Esquimalt for a scheduled port visit to Victoria, British Columbia. Returned home on July 27.

November 21, Cmdr. Joey L. Frantzen relieved Cmdr. Kristin L. Stengel as CO of the Ingraham.

December 13, USS Ingraham departed Naval Station Everett for sea trials after a four-month Selected Restricted Availability (SRA).

October 8, 2013 The Ingraham is currently underway off the coast of southern California for Task Group Exercise (TGEX).

March 11, 2014 USS Ingraham, with an embarked Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron Light (HSL) 49 Det. 2, departed Everett for a scheduled deployment in support of the Counter Transnational Organized Crime (C-TOC) operations.

April 11, The guided-missile destroyer recently moored at Vasco Nunez de Balboa Naval Base, Panama, for a brief port call.

May 6, FFG 61 moored at Berth 3 in Puerto Quetzal, Guatemala, for a brief stop to refuel.

May 18, USS Ingraham and its embarked U.S. Coast Guard LEDET 104 team, in coordination with the Colombian Navy and Air Force, retrieved more than 5200 pounds of cocaine after interdicted a self-propelled semi-submersible (SPSS) vessel, approximately 45 n.m., off the coast of Tumaco, Colombia. The three crew members were taken into custody.

June 4, The Ingraham retrieved more than 1700 pounds of cocaine after interdicted a Costa Rican-flagged fishing vessel Maria Bonita in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The four crew members were taken into custody.

June 9, Cmdr. Daniel G. Straub relieved Cmdr. Joey L. Frantzen as the 17th CO of Ingraham during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship at Balboa Naval Base, Panama.

July 3, The Ingraham disrupted a shipment of 700 pounds of cocaine, after interdicted a "go-fast" speed boat, approximately 115 miles southeast of the border between Panama and Colombia.

July 12, USS Ingraham recently moored at Vasco Nunez de Balboa Naval Base for a routine port call.

August 21, FFG 61 retrieved 1500 pounds of cocaine after interdicted a "go-fast" speed boat in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Inport Balboa again from Aug. 31- Sept. 2.?

September 11, The Ingraham moored at Callao Naval Base, Peru, for the in-port phase of annual multinational exericise UNITAS 55-14 Underway for at-sea phase from Sept. 16-19 Inport Salaverry, Peru, from Sept. 19-21 Inport Callao again from Sept. 25-27.

October 7, The guided-missile frigate recently moored at Callao Naval Base for a liberty port visit to Lima after participated in a bilateral anti-submarine warfare (ASW) Silent Forces Exercise (SIFOREX) 2014, with the Naval forces from Brazil, Colombia and Peru.

October 30, USS Ingraham returned to Naval Station Everett after a seven-and-a-half month deployment in the U.S. 4th Fleet Area of Responsibility (AoR).

November 10, The Ingraham departed homeport for a Friends and Family Day Cruise in Elliott Bay.

November 12, USS Ingraham held a decommissioning ceremony at Naval Station Everett after more than 25 years of active service.

January 28, 2015 The Ingraham transited under tow to Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, Wash., where it will be dismantled for scrap.

The Weather Forecast That Saved D-Day

In contrast to the bright morning about to dawn over Portsmouth, England, on June 4, 1944, gloom settled over the Allied commanders gathered inside Southwick House at 4:15 a.m. Years of preparation had been invested in the invasion of Normandy, but now, just hours before the launch of D-Day operations, came the voice of Group Captain James Stagg urging a last-minute delay. As Operation Overlord’s chief meteorological officer, the lanky Brit was hardly a battlefield commander, but the ultimate fate of D-Day now rested in his decision-making.

Allied troops packed tightly into an aquatic landing craft wait for their turn to face the Germans at Normandy.

The disappointed commanders knew that the list of potential invasion dates were only a precious few because of the need for a full moon to illuminate obstacles and landing places for gliders and for a low tide at dawn to expose the elaborate underwater defenses installed by the Germans. June 5, chosen by Allied Supreme Commander Dwight Eisenhower to be D-Day, was the first date in a narrow three-day window with the necessary astronomical conditions. The massive Normandy landings, however, also required optimal weather conditions. High winds and rough seas could capsize landing craft and sabotage the amphibious assault wet weather could bog down the army and thick cloud cover could obscure the necessary air support.

The critical, but unenviable task of predicting the English Channel’s notoriously fickle weather fell to a team of forecasters from the Royal Navy, British Meteorological Office and U.S. Strategic and Tactical Air Force, and as D-Day approached, storm clouds brewed inside the meteorological office. 

Observations from Newfoundland taken on May 29 reported changing conditions that might arrive by the proposed invasion date. Based on their knowledge of English Channel weather and observations, the British forecasters predicted the stormy weather would indeed arrive on June 5. The American meteorologists, relying on a differing forecasting method based on historic weather maps, instead believed that a wedge of high pressure would deflect the advancing storm front and provide clear, sunny skies over the English Channel.

Group Captain James Stagg

In the early hours of June 4, Stagg believed foul weather was only hours away. He sided with his fellow British colleagues and recommended a postponement. Knowing that the weather held the potential to be an even fiercer foe than the Nazis, a reluctant Eisenhower agreed in the early hours of June 4 to delay D-Day by 24 hours.

On the other side of the English Channel, German forecasters also predicted the stormy conditions that indeed rolled in as Stagg and his fellow Brits had feared. The Luftwaffe’s chief meteorologist, however, went further in reporting that rough seas and gale-force winds were unlikely to weaken until mid-June. Armed with that forecast, Nazi commanders thought it impossible that an Allied invasion was imminent, and many left their coastal defenses to participate in nearby war games. German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel even returned home to personally present a pair of Parisian shoes to his wife as a birthday present.

German Luftwaffe meteorologists, however, relied on less sophisticated data and models than their Allied counterparts, says John Ross, author of “The Forecast for D-Day: And the Weatherman behind Ike’s Greatest Gamble.” “The Allies had a much more robust network of weather stations in Canada, Greenland and Iceland of weather ships and weather flights over the North Atlantic and observations by secret agreement from weather stations in the neutral Republic of Ireland,” he says. 

Those weather stations, in particular one at a post office at Blacksod Point in the far west of Ireland, proved crucial in detecting the arrival of a lull in the storms that Stagg and his colleagues believed would allow for an invasion on June 6. As rain and high winds lashed Portsmouth on the night of June 4, Stagg informed Eisenhower of the forecast for a temporary break. With the next available date for an invasion nearly two weeks away, the Allies risked losing the element of surprise if they waited. In spite of the pelting rain and howling winds outside, Eisenhower placed his faith in his forecasters and gave the go-ahead for D-Day.

Allied Supreme Commander Dwight Eisenhower speaking with troops before the invasion of Normandy.

The weather during the initial hours of D-Day was still not ideal. Thick clouds resulted in Allied bombs and paratroopers landing miles off target. Rough seas caused landing craft to capsize and mortar shells to land off the mark. By noon, however, the weather had cleared and Stagg’s forecast had been validated. The Germans had been caught by surprise, and the tide of World War II began to turn.

Weeks later, Stagg sent Eisenhower a memo noting that had D-Day been pushed to later in June, the Allies would have encountered the worst weather in the English Channel in two decades. “I thank the Gods of War we went when we did,” Eisenhower scribbled on the report. He could also have been thankful for Stagg overruling the advice of the American meteorologists who wanted to go on June 5 as planned, which Ross says would have been a disaster. 

“The weather over Normandy contained too much cloud cover for Ike’s greatest strategic asset, the Allied air forces, to effectively protect the landings from German armor, artillery and infantry reserves. Winds were too strong for the deployment of paratroopers to secure bridges and crossroads inland from the beaches thus preventing German reinforcement of coastal positions. Waves were too high for landing craft to put soldiers and supplies ashore. The key element of surprise—location and time—would have been lost, and the conquest of western Europe could well have taken another year.”

Sir Francis Drake: Defeat of the Spanish Armada, Later Years and Death

In 1585, with hostilities heating up again between England and Spain, the queen gave Drake command of a fleet of 25 ships. He sailed to the West Indies and the coast of Florida and mercilessly plundered Spanish ports there, taking Santiago in the Cape Verde Islands, Cartagena in Colombia, St. Augustine in Florida and San Domingo (now Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic). On the return voyage, he picked up a failed English military colony on Roanoke Island off the Carolinas. Drake then led an even bigger fleet (30 ships) into the Spanish port of Cฝiz and destroyed a large number of vessels being readied for the Spanish Armada. In 1588, Drake served as second-in-command to Admiral Charles Howard in the English victory over the supposedly invincible Spanish fleet.

After a failed 1589 expedition to Portugal, Drake returned home to England for several years, until Queen Elizabeth enlisted him for one more voyage, against Spanish possessions in the West Indies in early 1596. The expedition proved to be a dismal failure: Spain fended off the English attacks, and Drake came down with fever and dysentery. He died in late January 1596 at age 55 off the coast of Puerto Bello (now Portobelo, Panama).

Mục lục

Ingraham được đặt lườn tại xưởng tàu của hãng Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company ở Kearny, New Jersey vào ngày 4 tháng 8 năm 1943. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 16 tháng 1 năm 1944 được đỡ đầu bởi bà George Ingraham Hutchinson, cháu Đại tá Ingraham, [1] và nhập biên chế vào ngày 10 tháng 3 năm 1944 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Trung tá Hải quân H. W. Gordon.

1944 Sửa đổi

Sau khi hoàn tất việc chạy thử máy tại vùng biển Bermuda và huấn luyện ngoài khơi Norfolk, Virginia, Ingraham khởi hành để đi sang khu vực Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương, đi đến Eniwetok vào ngày 31 tháng 10 năm 1944, kịp thời để tham gia các chiến dịch sau cùng của Khối Đồng Minh nhằm đẩy lui quân đội Nhật Bản về các đảo chính quốc.

Vào giữa tháng 11, Ingraham hộ tống các tàu sân bay trong các đợt không kích lên đảo Luzon thuộc quần đảo Philippine, gây ra những thiệt hại đáng kể cho tàu bè và không lực của Lục quân và Hải quân Nhật Bản. Nó tiếp tục nhiệm vụ tuần tra và chống tàu ngầm cho đến ngày 12 tháng 12, khi nó lên đường tham gia cuộc tấn công và đổ bộ lên Mindoro. Ba ngày sau, nó phối hợp cùng tàu khu trục Barton (DD-722) đánh chìm một tàu chở hàng Nhật ngoài khơi mũi Tây Nam Mindoro.

1945 Sửa đổi

Sau một lượt nghỉ ngơi ngắn, Ingraham khởi hành từ vịnh San Pedro vào ngày 2 tháng 1, 1945 cho chiến dịch đổ bộ tiếp theo lên vịnh Lingayen. Đi đến ngoài khơi vịnh Lingayen vào ngày 6 tháng 1, nó cung cấp hỏa lực phòng không bảo vệ cho lực lượng, và tham gia bắn hải pháo xuống các mục tiêu đối phương sâu trong đất liền. Đến cuối tháng 1, nó gia nhập lực lượng đặc nhiệm tàu sân bay nhanh cho các đợt không kích xuống chính quốc Nhật Bản. Sau khi được sửa chữa tại Saipan vào ngày 20 tháng 2, chiếc tàu khu trục tiếp tục tham gia cuộc đổ bộ lên Iwo Jima vào ngày 23 tháng 2, nơi nó bắn hải pháo hỗ trợ cho cuộc tấn công trên bộ của lực lượng Thủy quân Lục chiến.

Từ ngày 21 tháng 3, trong khuôn khổ cuộc đổ bộ lên Okinawa, Ingraham đảm trách vai trò cột mốc radar canh phòng nhằm cảnh báo sớm các đợt không kích của đối phương, và dẫn đường cho máy bay tiêm kích thuộc lực lượng tuần tra chiến đấu trên không (CAP). Vào ngày 5 tháng 5, nó bị máy bay tấn công tự sát đối phương tấn công dồn dập bốn chiếc Kamikaze đã bị nó bắn rơi, nhưng chiếc thứ năm đã đâm trúng con tàu bên mạn trái phía trên mực nước. Quả bom chiếc máy bay mang theo kích nổ trong phòng phát điện, khiến con tàu bị mất điện và chịu đựng 51 người thương vong, trong đó có 15 người tử trận. Con tàu phải rút lui về Hunter's Point, California để sửa chữa, và vẫn còn ở lại Hoa Kỳ khi Nhật Bản đầu hàng vào ngày 15 tháng 8.

1946 – 1952 Sửa đổi

Sau khi hoàn tất sửa chữa, Ingraham hoạt động dọc theo bờ biển phía Tây Hoa Kỳ cho đến ngày 7 tháng 5, 1946, khi nó lên đường tham gia cuộc thử nghiệm bom nguyên tử tại đảo san hô Bikini. Sau khi hoàn thành nhiệm vụ, nó khởi hành từ San Diego, California vào ngày 24 tháng 2, 1947 cho chuyến đi sang Viễn Đông, tham gia nhiều cuộc tập trận, và vào cuối tháng 6 đã đi đến Manila, Philippines, đại diện chính thức cho Hoa Kỳ trong lễ kỷ niệm một năm Philippine độc lập. Tiếp tục chuyến viếng thăm thiện chí, nó ghé qua Guam, Melbourne và Sydney thuộc Australia đồng thời tham gia nghi thức thả vòng hoa tưởng niệm những binh sĩ tử trận trong Trận chiến biển Coral năm 1942. Con tàu quay trở về San Diego vào ngày 8 tháng 10, 1947.

Ingraham hoạt động dọc theo bờ biển California cho đến ngày 4 tháng 4, 1949, khi nó rời San Diego để chuyển sang Norfolk, Virginia, đến nơi vào ngày 20 tháng 4. Nó tham gia thực tập huấn luyện tại khu vực Đại Tây Dương cho đến ngày 24 tháng 11, 1950, khi nó rời Norfolk cho một lượt bố trí hoạt động kéo dài bốn tháng cùng Đệ Lục hạm đội tại Địa Trung Hải. Con tàu tiếp nối các hoạt động thực tập huấn luyện tại khu vực Đại Tây Dương trong mùa Hè năm 1951, rồi thực hiện thêm hai lượt phục vụ khác cùng Đệ Lục hạm đội tại Địa Trung Hải vào mùa Thu năm 1951 và mùa Hè năm 1952.

Chiến tranh Triều Tiên - 1953 Sửa đổi

Ingraham rời Norfolk vào ngày 24 tháng 4, 1953 để hộ tống cho tàu sân bay Lake Champlain (CV-39) đi sang Nhật Bản qua ngã Địa Trung Hải và kênh đào Suez. Đi đến Yokosuka vào ngày 9 tháng 6, nó gia nhập đội đặc nhiệm tàu sân bay vào cuối tháng đó để hỗ trợ trên không cho lực lượng Liên Hiệp Quốc tại Triều Tiên trong cuộc Chiến tranh Triều Tiên. Nó cũng tham gia bắn phá các vị trí pháo binh và kho tiếp liệu đối phương dọc bờ biển. Sau khi hai bên xung đột đạt được thỏa thuận ngừng bắn, nó tiếp tục tuần tra giám sát ngoài khơi bờ biển Triều Tiên cho đến khi quay trở về Norfolk vào ngày 27 tháng 10.

1954 – 1965 Sửa đổi

Trong năm 1954, Ingraham tiến hành các hoạt động thực tập chống tàu ngầm, các chuyến đi đến Nam Mỹ, và tham gia các cuộc tập trận của Khối NATO tại vùng biển ngoài khơi Bắc Ireland. Sau một đợt đại tu, nó quay trở lại hoạt động huấn luyện vào tháng 6, 1955, thực hiện một chuyến đi huấn luyện đến vùng biển Scandinavia, rồi quay trở về Norfolk vào ngày 6 tháng 9. Nó lại khởi hành từ Norfolk vào ngày 28 tháng 7, 1956 để làm nhiệm vụ cùng Đệ Lục hạm đội tại khu vực Địa Trung Hải, vào thời điểm mà sự căng thẳng gia tăng giữa Ai Cập với Anh, Pháp và Israel do vụ Khủng hoảng kênh đào Suez. Nó quay trở về Norfolk vào ngày 4 tháng 12, tiếp nối các hoạt động huấn luyện, rồi tham gia cuộc tập trận của Khối NATO vào tháng 9 và tháng 10, 1957.

Ingraham lại được phái sang hoạt động cùng Đệ Lục hạm đội tại khu vực Địa Trung Hải vào tháng 2, 1958, làm nhiệm vụ tuần tra tại khu vực Đông Địa Trung Hải và biển Hồng Hải nó quay trở về Norfolk, Virginia vào ngày 2 tháng 7, trước khi xảy ra vụ Khủng hoảng Li-băng, nơi Đệ Lục hạm đội đóng một vai trò quan trọng để duy trì ổn định và bảo vệ cho công dân Hoa Kỳ. Chiếc tàu khu trục sau đó hoạt động dọc theo vùng bờ Đông cho đến ngày 13 tháng 2, 1959, khi nó lên đường cho một đợt bố trí khác cùng Đệ Lục hạm đội, vào thời điểm có nguy cơ đối đầu với các nước trong Khối Warszawa do mâu thuẫn tại Berlin. Nó rời khu vực Địa Trung Hải vào ngày 30 tháng 8, và quay về đến Xưởng hải quân Norfolk tại Portsmouth, Virginia vào ngày 7 tháng 9, nơi nó bắt đầu được đại tu.

Trong năm 1960, Ingraham tiến hành các hoạt động ngoài khơi Mayport, Florida trước khi thực hiện một lượt phục vụ khác cùng Đệ Lục hạm đội, bắt đầu từ cuối tháng 9, 1960. Nó quay trở lại hoạt động thường lệ ngoài khơi Mayport vào tháng 3, 1961 trước khi trải qua một cuộc nâng cấp và hiện đại hóa kéo dài tám tháng, theo chương trình Hồi sinh và Hiện đại hóa Hạm đội II (FRAM: Rehabilitation and Modernization Fleet) tại Portsmouth, Virginia.

Ingraham chuyển đến cảng nhà mới tại Newport, Rhode Island vào ngày 23 tháng 2, 1962, rồi tham gia các cuộc tập trận hạm đội tại Đại Tây Dương và vùng biển Caribe, Trong tháng 9 và tháng 10, 1962, con tàu tham gia vào Chương trình Mercury khi hoạt động như một tàu thu hồi trong chuyến bay lên quỹ đạo trái đất của tàu "Sigma 7". Cũng trong năm này, nó tham gia hoạt động phong tỏa Cuba trong vụ Khủng hoảng tên lửa Cuba, do việc Liên Xô bố trí những tên lửa đạn đạo trên hòn đảo này. Nó được phái sang Địa Trung Hải cùng Đệ Lục hạm đội vào ngày 1 tháng 10, 1963, rồi quay trở lại hoạt động thường lệ dọc theo vùng bờ Đông, cho đến khi được phái sang Việt Nam vào ngày 29 tháng 9, 1965.

Chiến tranh Việt Nam – 1965 – 1966 Sửa đổi

Ingraham khởi hành từ Newport vào ngày 29 tháng 9, 1965 để đi sang khu vực Tây Thái Bình Dương và phục vụ trong cuộc Chiến tranh Việt Nam. Nó đi đến Yokosuka, Nhật Bản vào ngày 31 tháng 10, 1965 để được tiếp liệu trước khi tiếp tục đi sang Biển Đông. Ngoài nhiệm vụ hộ tống bảo vệ tàu sân bay Ticonderoga (CV-14), nó còn tiến hành bắn phá bờ biển hỗ trợ cho lực lượng chiến đấu trên bộ. Vào ngày 12 tháng 11, 1965, con tàu tiến sâu 10 dặm (16 km) vào sông Sài Gòn để bắn phá một căn cứ tiếp liệu đối phương, và sang ngày hôm sau bắn phá một vị trí tập trung quân cách đó 300 dặm (480 km). Sang đầu tháng 12, nó theo dõi hoạt động của một tàu ngầm Xô Viết tại khu vực phụ cận đảo Hải Nam, Trung Quốc tiếp giáp với vịnh Bắc Bộ và từ ngày 1 tháng 1 đến ngày 24 tháng 1, 1966, nó hoạt động cùng Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 77 ngoài khơi Việt Nam. Nó rời khu vực Viễn Đông vào ngày 4 tháng 2 để quay trở về Newport qua ngã kênh đào Suez, về đến cảng nhà vào ngày 8 tháng 4, 1966.

1966 – 1971 Sửa đổi

Ingraham tiếp tục hoạt động thường lệ dọc theo vùng bờ Đông Hoa Kỳ. Từ ngày 14 đến ngày 21 tháng 6, 1966, nó tham gia Chiến dịch Beachtime, cuộc tập trận đổ bộ tại vùng biển Caribe. Nó được bảo trì từ ngày 28 tháng 10 đến ngày 28 tháng 11, 1966 nhằm chuẩn bị để được biệt phái sang Địa Trung Hải. Nó đi đến Gibraltar vào ngày 8 tháng 12.

Ingraham đã hoạt động huấn luyện vào mùa Hè năm 1969 tại vịnh Guantánamo, Cuba. Đến ngày 2 tháng 9, nó khởi hành từ Newport cùng tàu sân bay Yorktown (CV-10) để tham gia cuộc tập trận Peacekeeper từ ngày 17 đến ngày 21 tháng 9. Sau đó nó lần lượt viếng thăm các cảng Brest, Pháp từ ngày 23 tháng 9 Rotterdam, Hà Lan từ ngày 16 đến ngày 18 tháng 10 Kiel, Đức từ ngày 11 đến ngày 16 tháng 11 Copenhagen, Đan Mạch từ ngày 18 đến ngày 21 tháng 11 và Portsmouth, Anh từ ngày 25 tháng 11 đến ngày 1 tháng 12. Nó quay trở về Newport vào ngày 11 tháng 12. [2]

Từ cuối năm 1970 sang đầu năm 1971, Ingraham thực hiện chuyến đi cuối cùng sang Địa Trung Hải cùng Đệ Lục hạm đội, viếng thăm các cảng Valletta, Malta vịnh Augusta, Sicily Palma, Majorca Naples, Ý Athens, Hy Lạp. Sau khi quay trở về Hoa Kỳ, Ingraham được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 15 tháng 6, 1971 và được bán cho Hy Lạp vào ngày 16 tháng 7, 1971.

Miaoulis (D211) Sửa đổi

Chiếc tàu khu trục phục vụ cùng Hải quân Hy Lạp như là chiếc Miaoulis (D211), tên được đặt theo Đô đốc Andreas Vokos Miaoulis (1769-1835), vị anh hùng của cuộc Chiến tranh giành độc lập Hy Lạp vào đầu thế kỷ 19. [3] Thoạt tiên nó trang bị một máy bay trực thăng Aérospatiale Alouette III thay cho kiểu máy bay không người lái chống tàu ngầm Aerodyne QH-50 DASH được Hải quân Mỹ sử dụng. [4] Nó được hiện đại hóa từ tháng 11, 1986, khi dàn sonar với độ sâu thay đổi được tháo dỡ, sàn đáp và hầm chứa máy bay được mở rộng để kiểu máy bay trực thăng Agusta-Bell AB-212 lớn hơn có thể hoạt động. [5] Con tàu tiếp tục hoạt động cho đến năm 1992, khi nó được cho xuất biên chế và rút khỏi danh sách đăng bạ hải quân. [4]

Miaoulis bị đánh chìm như một mục tiêu trong một cuộc tập trận của Hải quân Hy Lạp vào ngày 9 tháng 10, 2001. [3]

Ingraham được tặng thưởng danh hiệu Đơn vị Tưởng thưởng Hải quân và bốn Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II, và thêm một Ngôi sao Chiến trận khác trong Chiến tranh Triều Tiên.

Ingraham được đặt lườn vào ngày 12 tháng 1 năm 1918 tại xưởng tàu của hãng Union Iron Works ở San Francisco, California. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 4 tháng 7 năm 1918, được đỡ đầu bởi bà Alfred S. Gann, và được đưa ra hoạt động vào ngày 15 tháng 5 năm 1919 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Trung tá Hải quân D. L. Le Breton.

Ingraham khởi hành vào ngày 20 tháng 5 cho chuyến đi chạy thử máy, băng qua kênh đào Panama và đi đến Newport, Rhode Island vào ngày 6 tháng 6. Sau khi được sửa chữa tại New York, nó lên đường cho một lượt phục vụ tại vùng biển Châu Âu. Đang khi viếng thăm Ostend, Bỉ vào ngày 22 tháng 9, nó đã đưa Vua và Hoàng hậu Bỉ đến Calais, Pháp. Chiếc tàu khu trục quay trở về San Diego vào ngày 8 tháng 1 năm 1920, ngang qua New York và vùng kênh đào, để bắt đầu được cải biến thành một tàu rải mìn hạng nhẹ.

Được xếp lại lớp với ký hiệu lườn mới DM-9, Ingraham bắt đầu các cuộc thực tập rải mìn vào tháng 1 năm 1921 dọc theo bờ biển California trước khi rời Mare Island vào ngày 7 tháng 6. Nó đi đến Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 18 tháng 6, tham gia các hoạt động tại đây cho đến khi được cho ngừng hoạt động tại Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 29 tháng 6 năm 1922. Tên nó được rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 1 tháng 12 năm 1936, và nó bị bán để tháo dỡ sau đó.

Early life

Sophie Friederike Auguste, Prinzessin (princess) von Anhalt-Zerbst, was the daughter of an obscure German prince, Christian August von Anhalt-Zerbst, but she was related through her mother to the dukes of Holstein. At age 14 she was chosen to be the wife of Karl Ulrich, duke of Holstein-Gottorp, grandson of Peter the Great and heir to the throne of Russia as the grand duke Peter. In 1744 Catherine arrived in Russia, assumed the title of Grand Duchess Catherine Alekseyevna, and married her young cousin the following year. The marriage was a complete failure the following 18 years were filled with disappointment and humiliation for her.

Russia at the time was ruled by Peter the Great’s daughter, the empress Elizabeth, whose 20-year reign greatly stabilized the monarchy. Devoted to much pleasure and luxury and greatly desirous of giving her court the brilliancy of a European court, Elizabeth prepared the way for Catherine.

Catherine, however, would not have become empress if her husband had been at all normal. He was extremely neurotic, rebellious, obstinate, perhaps impotent, nearly alcoholic, and, most seriously, a fanatical worshipper of Frederick II of Prussia, the foe of the empress Elizabeth. Catherine, by contrast, was clearheaded and ambitious. Her intelligence, flexibility of character, and love of Russia gained her much support.

She was humiliated, bored, and regarded with suspicion while at court, but she found comfort in reading extensively and in preparing herself for her future role as sovereign. Although a woman of little beauty, Catherine possessed considerable charm, a lively intelligence, and extraordinary energy. During her husband’s lifetime alone, she had at least three lovers if her hints are to be believed, none of her three children, not even the heir apparent Paul, was fathered by her husband. Her true passion, however, was ambition since Peter was incapable of ruling, she saw quite early the possibility of eliminating him and governing Russia herself.

The empress Elizabeth died on December 25, 1761 (January 5, 1762, New Style), while Russia, allied with Austria and France, was engaged in the Seven Years’ War against Prussia. Shortly after Elizabeth’s death, Peter, now emperor, ended Russia’s participation in the war and concluded an alliance with Frederick II of Prussia. He made no attempt to hide his hatred of Russia and his love of his native Germany discrediting himself endlessly by his foolish actions, he also prepared to rid himself of his wife. Catherine had only to strike: she had the support of the army, especially the regiments at St. Petersburg, where Grigory Orlov, her lover, was stationed the court and public opinion in both capitals (Moscow and St. Petersburg). She was also supported by the “ enlightened” elements of aristocratic society, since she was known for her liberal opinions and admired as one of the most cultivated persons in Russia. On June 28 (July 9, New Style), 1762, she led the regiments that had rallied to her cause into St. Petersburg and had herself proclaimed empress and autocrat in the Kazan Cathedral. Peter III abdicated and was assassinated eight days later. Although Catherine probably did not order the murder of Peter, it was committed by her supporters, and public opinion held her responsible. In September 1762, she was crowned with great ceremony in Moscow, the ancient capital of the tsars, and began a reign that was to span 34 years as empress of Russia under the title of Catherine II.

Ingraham II DD 4 - History

Battalion Summaries

Defense battalion war diaries, muster rolls, and the unit files held by the Marine Corps Historical Center provide the basis for the following brief accounts of the service of the various defense battalions. The actions of some units are well documented: for example, the 1st Defense Battalion on Wake Island in 1941 the 6th at Midway in 1942 and the 9th in the Central Solomons during 1943. Few of the battalions received group recognition commensurate with their contributions to victory, although the 1st, 6th, and 9th were awarded unit citations. Each defense battalion created its own distinctive record as it moved from one island to another, but gaps and discrepancies persist nevertheless.

1st Defense Battalion
(November 1939-May 1944)

The unit, formed at San Diego, California, deployed to the Pacific as one of the Rainbow Five, the five defense battalions stationed there in accordance with the Rainbow 5 war plan when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Under Lieutenant Colonel Bert A. Bone, elements of the battalion arrived in Hawaii in March 1941. The unit provided defense detachments for Johnston and Palmyra Islands in March and April of that year and for Wake Island in August. The Wake Island detachment of the 1st Defense Battalion received the Presidential Unit Citation for the defense of that outpost — which earned the battalion the nickname "Wake Island Defenders" — and other elements dealt with hit-and-run raids at Palmyra and Johnston Islands. In March 1942, the scattered detachments became garrison forces and a reconstituted battalion took shape in Hawaii. Command passed to Colonel Curtis W. LeGette in May 1942 and to Lieutenant Colonel John H. Griebel in September. Lieutenant Colonel Frank P Hager exercised command briefly his successor, Colonel Lewis H. Hohn, took the unit to Kwajalein and Eniwetok, in the Marshall Islands, in February 1944. The following month found the battalion on Majuro, also in the Marshalls, where it became the 1st Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion on 7 May 1944, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Jean H. Buckner. As an antiaircraft unit, it served as part of the Guam garrison, remaining on the is land through 1947.

2d Defense Battalion
(March 1940-April 1944)

The battalion was formed at San Diego, California, under Lieutenant Colonel Bert A. Bone. By the time the unit deployed to Hawaii in December 1941, five officers had exercised command Major Lewis A. Hohn took over from Colonel Bone in July 1940, followed in August of that year by Colonel Thomas E. Bourke, in November 1940 by Lieutenant Colonel Charles I. Murray, and in February 1941 by Lieutenant Colonel Raymond E. Knapp. Under Knapp, who received a promotion to colonel, the battalion deployed in January 1942 from Hawaii to Tutuila, Samoa. Lieutenant Colonel Norman E. True briefly took over, and Knapp succeeded him from October 1942 to May 1943, but True again commanded the battalion when it deployed in November 1943 to Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands. True remained in command when the unit was redesignated the 2d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion on 16 April 1944. The organization subsequently served in Hawaii and Guam before landing on Okinawa in April 1945. It returned to the United States in 1946 and was deactivated.

The Sperry 60-inch searchlight was employed by the 3d Defense Battalion both to illuminate incoming enemy aircraft and to spot approaching surface vessels. National Archives Photo 127-N-62097

3d Defense Battalion
(October 1939-June 1944)

Activated at Parris Island, South Carolina, with Lieutenant Colonel Robert H. Pepper in command, the battalion deployed in May 1940 to Hawaii where it became one of the Rainbow Five. Colonel Harry K. Pickett took command in August of that year, and in September approximately a third of the battalion, under Major Harold C. Roberts, went to Midway and assumed responsibility for the antiaircraft defense of the atoll. Lieutenant Colonel Pepper brought the rest of the unit to Midway in 1941, but the battalion returned to Hawaii in October and helped defend Pearl Harbor when the Japanese attacked on 7 December. A detachment of 37mm guns and the 3-inch antiaircraft group joined the 6th Defense Battalion at Midway, opposed the Japanese air attack on 4 June 1942, and shared in a Navy Unit Commendation awarded the 6th Battalion for the defense of that atoll. In August 1942. the battalion, still led by Lieutenant Colonel Pepper, participated in the landings at Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomon Islands. During 1943, the unit experienced a change of commanders, with Harold C. Roberts, now a lieutenant colonel, taking over in March 1943, Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth W. Benner in May, and Lieutenant Colonel Samuel G. Taxis in August. After a stay in New Zealand, the battalion returned to Guadalcanal in September 1943 and in November of that year, while commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Edward H. Forney, landed at Bougainville, remaining in the northern Solomons until June 1944. Redesignated the 3d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion on 15 June 1944, the organization was disbanded at Guadalcanal on the last day of that year.

4th Defense Battalion
(February 1940-May 1944)

The organization took shape at Parris Island, South Carolina, under Major George F. Good, Jr. Colonel Lloyd L. Leech took over in April and Lieutenant Colonel Jesse L. Perkins in December 1940. Colonel William H. Rupertus commanded the unit when it deployed in February 1941 to defend the naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Under Colonel Harold S. Fasset, the battalion arrived in the Pacific in time to become one of the Rainbow Five. Its strength was divided between Pearl Harbor and Midway, and helped defend both bases against Japanese attacks on 7 December. The unit deployed in March 1942 to Efate and Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides, It moved in July 1943 to New Zealand and then to Guadalcanal before landing in August 1943 at Vella Lavella in support of the I Marine Amphibious Corps. After becoming the 4th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion on 15 May 1944, the unit returned to Guadalcanal in June but ended the war on Okinawa. arriving there in April 1945.

5th Defense Battalion
(December 1940-April 1944)

Organized at Parris Island, South Carolina, under Colonel Lloyd L. Leech, the 5th Defense Battalion subsequently became the 14th Defense Battalion, thus earning the unofficial title of "Five: Fourteenth." Colonel Leech took the 5th Defense Battalion (minus the 5-inch artillery group) to Iceland with the Marine brigade sent there to relieve the British garrison. He brought the unit back to the United States in March 1942, and in July it sailed for the South Pacific, where one detachment set up its weapons at Noumea, New Caledonia, and another defended Tulagi in the Solomons after the 1st Marine Division landed there in August 1942. The bulk of the battalion went to the Ellice Islands there Colonel George F. Good, Jr., assumed command in November, and was relieved in December by Lieutenant Colonel Willis E. Hicks. On 16 January 1943, the part of the unit located at Tulagi was redesignated the 14th Defense Battalion, while the remainder in the Ellice group became the Marine Defense Force, Funafuti. In March 1944, the Marine Defense Force, Funafuti, sailed for Hawaii, where, on 16 April, it became the 5th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion, seeing action under the designation during the latter stages of the Okinawa campaign.

6th Defense Battalion
(March 1941-February 1946)

Lieutenant Colonel Charles I. Murray formed the battalion at San Diego, California, but turned it over to Colonel Raphael Griffin, who took it to Hawaii in July 1941. It relieved the 3d Defense Battalion at Midway in September. In June 1942, the 6th, now commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Harold D. Shannon, helped fight off a Japanese air attack and repair bomb damage, thus earning a Navy Unit Commendation. The battalion remained at Midway until redesignated Marine Barracks, Naval Base, Midway, on 1 February 1946. The wartime commanders who succeeded Shannon were Lieutenant Colonels Lewis A. Hohn, Rupert R. Deese, John H. Griebel, Charles T. Tingle, Frank P Hager, Jr., Robert L. McKee, Herbert R. Nusbaum, and Wilfred Weaver, and Major Robert E. Hommel.

Marines of the 7th Defense Battalion, one of the "Rainbow Five," give their new M3 Stuart light tank a trial run at Tutuila, American Samoa, in the summer of 1942. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 54082

7th Defense Battalion
(December 1940-April 1944)

Lieutenant Colonel Lester A. Dessez formed the unit at San Diego, California, as a composite battalion of infantry and artillery. In March 1941, he took the outfit to Tutuila, Samoa, as one of the Rainbow Five. The 7th later deployed to Upolu and established a detachment at Savaii. Colonel Curtis W. LeGette took command in December 1942, and in August of the following year, the battalion moved to Nanoumea in the Ellice Islands in preparation for supporting operations against the Gilbert Islands. Lieutenant Colonel Henry R. Paige took over in December 1943 and brought the unit to Hawaii where, on 16 April 1944, it became the 7th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion. As an antiaircraft outfit, it deployed to Anguar, Palau Islands, in September 1944, where it served in the garrison force for the remainder of the war.

8th Defense Battalion
(April 1942-April 1944)

Lieutenant Colonel Augustus W. Cockrell raised this battalion from Marine units at Tutuila, Samoa. In May 1942, the battalion deployed to the Wallis Islands, where it was redesignated the Island Defense Force. Lieutenant Colonel Earl A. Sneeringer assumed command for two weeks in August 1943 before turning the unit over to Colonel Clyde H. Hartsel. Colonel Lloyd L. Leech became battalion commander in October 1943, a month before the unit deployed to Apamama in the Gilberts, On 16 April 1944, after moving to Hawaii, the organization became the 8th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion and, as such, took part in the Okinawa campaign, remaining on the island until November 1945 when the unit returned to the United States.

This Browning M2 watercooled antiaircraft machine gun, operated by 9th Defense Battalion Marines, shot down the first attacking Japanese aircraft at Rendova. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 56812

9th Defense Battalion
(February 1942-September 1944)

Formed at Parris Island, South Carolina, and known as the "Fighting Ninth," the battalion was first commanded by Major Wallace O. Thompson, who brought it to Cuba where it helped defend the Guantanamo naval base. Lieutenant Colonel Bernard Dubel and his successor, Colonel David R. Nimmer, commanded the battalion while it served in Cuba, and Nimmer remained in command when the unit landed in November 1942 to reinforce the defenses of Guadalcanal. In preparation for further action, the battalion emphasized mobility and artillery support of ground operations at the expense of its coastal defense mission. Lieutenant Colonel William Scheyer commanded the 9th during the fighting in the central Solomons. Here it set up antiaircraft guns and heavy artillery on Rendova to support the fighting on neighboring New Georgia before moving to New Georgia itself and deploying its light tanks and other weapons. The battalion's tanks also supported Army troops on Arundel Island. Lieutenant Colonel Archie E. O'Neil was in command when the unit landed at Guam on D-Day, 21 July 1944. The battalion was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation for its service in action at Guadalcanal, Rendova, New Georgia, and Guam. Redesignated the 9th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion in September 1944, the unit returned to the United States in 1946.

10th Defense Battalion
(June 1942-May 1944)

Formed under Colonel Robert Blake at San Diego, California, the unit arrived in the Solomon Islands in February 1943, and participated in the defense of Tulagi in that group and Banika in the Russell Islands. The battalion's light tanks saw action on New Georgia and nearby Arundel Island. Under Lieutenant Colonel Wallace O. Thompson, who assumed command in July 1943, the 10th landed at Eniwetok, Marshall Islands, in February 1944. The unit was redesignated the 10th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion on 7 May 1944.

11th Defense Battalion
(June 1942-May 1944)

This battalion was activated at Parris Island, South Carolina, under Colonel Charles N. Muldrow and deployed during December 1942 to Efate in the New Hebrides. Beginning in January 1943, it helped defend Tulagi in the Solomons and Banika in the Russells group. During the Central Solomons campaign, it fought on Rendova, New Georgia, and Arundel Islands. In August, the entire battalion came together on New Georgia and in March 1944 deployed the short distance to Arundel Island. Redesignated the 11th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion on 16 May 1944, the unit moved in July to Guadalcanal where it was deactivated by year's end.

12th Defense Battalion
(August 1942-June 1944)

Colonel William H. Harrison activated this unit at San Diego, California, and took it to Hawaii in January 1943. After a brief stay in Australia, the 12th landed in June 1943 at Woodlark Island off New Guinea. Next the 12th took part in the assault on Cape Gloucester, New Britain in December 1943. Lieutenant Colonel Merlyn D. Holmes assumed command in February 1944, and on 15 June the defense battalion was redesignated the 12th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion. It moved to the Russell Islands in June and in September to Peleliu, where it remained through 1945.

13th Defense Battalion
(September 1942-April 1944)

Colonel Bernard Dubel formed the battalion at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, where it defended the naval base throughout the war. In February 1944, Colonel Richard M. Cutts, Jr., took command. The unit became the 13th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion on 15 April and was disbanded after the war.

14th Defense Battalion
(January 1943-September 1944)

Colonel Galen M. Sturgis organized this battalion from the elements of the 5th Defense Battalion on Tulagi, which inspired the nickname "Five: Fourteenth." Lieutenant Colonel Jesse L. Perkins took command in June 1943, and during his tour of duty, the battalion operated on Tulagi and sent a detachment to Emirau, St. Mathias Islands, to support a landing there in March 1944. Lieutenant Colonel William F. Parks took over from Perkins that same month and in April brought the unit to Guadalcanal to prepare for future operations. The organization landed at Guam in July and in September be came the 14th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion, remaining on the island until after the war had ended.

15th Defense Battalion
(October 1943-May 1944)

Organized in Hawaii by Lieutenant Colonel Francis B. Loomis, Jr., from the 1st Airdrome Battalion at Pearl Harbor, the unit bore the nickname "First: Fifteenth." Beginning in January 1944, it served at Kwajalein and Majuro Atolls in the Marshalls, Lieutenant Colonel Peter J. Negri assumed command in May 1944, shortly before the unit, on the 7th of that month, became the 15th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion.

16th Defense Battalion
(November 1942-April 1944)

Lieutenant Colonel Richard P Ross, Jr., formed the unit on Johnston Island from elements of the 1st Defense Battalion that had been stationed there. Lieutenant Colonel Bruce T. Hemphill took over in July 1943 and turned the unit over to Lieutenant Colonel August F. Penzold, Jr., in March of the following year. Redesignated the 16th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion on 19 April 1944, the outfit went to Hawaii by the end of August. It subsequently deployed to Tinian, remaining there until moving to Okinawa in April 1945.

17th Defense Battalion
(March 1944-April 1944)

At Kauai in Hawaii, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas G. McFarland organized this unit from the 2d Airdrome Battalion, which had returned from duty in the Ellice Islands. The redesignation gave rise to the nickname "Two: Seventeen," and the motto "One of a Kind." On 19 April, the defense battalion became the 17th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion. It moved to Saipan in July and to Tinian in August. At the latter island, it provided antiaircraft defense for both Tinian Town and North Field, from which B-29s took off with the atomic bombs that leveled Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

18th Defense Battalion
(October 1943-April 1944)

Activated at New River, North Carolina, by Lieutenant Colonel Harold C. Roberts, who was replaced in January 1944 by Lieutenant Colonel William C. Van Ryzin, the unit became the 18th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion on 16 May of that year. By August, echelons of the battalion were located at Saipan and Tinian, but by September it had come together on the latter island, where it remained until the end of the war.

51st Defense Battalion
(August 1942-January 1946)

Organized at Montford Point Camp, New River, North Carolina, this was the first of two defense battalions commanded by white officers, but organized from among African American Marines who had trained at Montford Point. Colonel Samuel Woods, Jr., who commanded the Montford Point Camp, formed the battalion and became its first commanding officer. Lieutenant Colonel William B. Onley took over in March 1943 and Lieutenant Colonel Floyd A. Stephenson in April. The initial plan called for the 51st to be a composite unit with infantry and pack-howitzer elements, but in June 1943 it became a conventional defense battalion. Lieutenant Curtis W. LeGette assumed command in January 1944 and took the battalion to Nanoumea and Funafuti in the Ellice Islands, where it arrived by the end of February 1944. In September, the 51st deployed to Eniwetok in the Marshalls where, in December, Lieutenant Colonel Gould P. Groves became battalion commander, a post he would hold throughout the rest of the war. In June 1945, Lieutenant Colonel Groves dispatched a composite group to provide antiaircraft defense for Kwajalein Atoll. The battalion sailed from the Marshalls in November 1945 and disbanded at Montford Point in January 1946.

52d Defense Battalion
(December 1943-May 1946)

This unit, like the 51st, was organized at Montford Point Camp, New River, North Carolina, and manned by African Americans commanded by white officers. Planned as a composite unit, the 52d took shape as a conventional defense battalion. It absorbed the pack howitzer crews made surplus when the 51st lost its composite status and retrained them in the employment of other weapons. Colonel Augustus W. Cockrell organized the unit, which he turned over to Lieutenant Colonel Joseph W. Earnshaw in July 1944. Under Earnshaw, the 52d the unit deployed to the Marshalls, arriving in October to man the antiaircraft defenses of Majuro Atoll and Roi-Namur in Kwajalein Atoll. Lieutenant Colonel David W. Silvey assumed command in January 1945, and between March and May the entire battalion deployed to Guam, remaining there for the rest of the war. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas C. Moore, Jr., replaced Silvey in May 1945, and in November, the 52d relieved the 51st at Kwajalein and Eniwetok Atolls before returning to Montford Point where in May 1946 it became the 3d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion (Composite).

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